Portraits; Past and Present

Bust of Aristotle. Marble, Roman copy after a ...

Bust of Aristotle. Marble, Roman copy after a Greek bronze original by Lysippos from 330 BC; the alabaster mantle is a modern addition. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: Portrait - Charles Dickens Polski: Po...

English: Portrait – Charles Dickens Polski: Portret Karola Dickensa (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Men Portraits; Past and Present

Throughout the human history from the early sketches of cavemen to post modern art portraits have been conveying human expression from every corner of the world. As Aristotle stated, “The aim of Art is to present not the outward appearance of things, but their inner significance; for this, not the external manner and detail, constitutes true reality.”

Materials, processes and techniques make each portrait a unique masterpiece. Different eras in different geographical locations have used papyrus, miniatures, oil painting and even modern day photography for artwork.

Charles Dickens put it, “there are only two styles of portrait painting: the serious and the smirk.” Gender, ethnicity and nationality and time all come together to deliver the expressions of men. The portraits are in dominant, governing, sage and authoritative pose.

The early drawings of our ancestors show their struggle for life. Men are shown to be hunters .the strange thing about these pictures is the simplicity in showing the survivalist instincts of humanity.

The Greek civilization

No doubt, the Greek civilization has great impact on the world.even though initially , it was mostly a western empire but the Greek invasion which started with Alexander and theN THE subsequent Hellenistic empires had a long lasting impact on Asia .
 Persian empire. Persians were one of the first nations of the world that truly built an empire . Parthian kings are still a symbol of majesty and glory in Arabic , Persian and Indian literature.Persian were able to colonized large parts of Europe, which in my opinion become the cause of hate ,which later on translated into the demise of Parthian Persia by the hands of its mortal enemy , Greece.
after the decline of Greece Persia was able to regain its former status of an empire.in next few centuries we see a constant battle between Rome and Persia. Even the mighty Crassus ,the mentor of Ceaser met a defeat near Carrhae where Persian cavalry outmaneuvered roman infantry ,resulting a stalemate.
Bust of Marcus Licinius Crassus located in the...

Bust of Marcus Licinius Crassus located in the Louvre, Paris (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The Sassanid Empire after its conquest of Meso...

The Sassanid Empire after its conquest of Mesopotamia, Palestine, Syria and Egypt under Khosrau II in ca. 620 AD (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Muslim Rashidun army was able to put an end to Sassanian dynasty after a fight of a decade or more.

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Baluchistan ….. Significance in Pakistan

Baluchistan ….. Significance in Pakistan

Map showing Marri tribal areas in Balochistan

Map showing Marri tribal areas in Balochistan (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The province of Baluchistan has different languages, cultures and ethnicities and the province has rooted traditions, customs and norms. The tribal and ‘Sardar’ system is the uniqueness in the culture of Baluchistan and the people stick to their values at any cost. Unfortunately before the creation of Pakistan the people of Baluchistan were deprived of their basic rights and the province was considered backward and recessive. After the partition of Sub-continent it was thought that the residents of Baluchistan will get their basic rights and the government of Pakistan will address their grievances and complaints.

To identify that the whether the grievances of Baluchistan are just merely the fault of Government of Pakistan and other provinces or there is something wrong internally in the province.  

Research statement:

Are the social, economic and political grievances of the people of Baluchistan justified?

Justified Grievances:

Politics in Baluchistan:

There is no doubt that the people of Baluchistan have been deprived from their rights which is clearly reflected in the province’ budget, law and order situation in terms of five military operations and deprivation of the province with its resources.  As the Baluchis are restrained from main stream politics as we can see the recent example of Sardar Akhtar Mengal who was considered as one of the prominent separatist leader in the province, but when he wanted to join the main stream politics every tactic was made to stop his party from using their democratic right to contest the elections. Even in past Governments used the language of military operations instead of dialogues.

Ownership of Resources:

English: Map of Districts of Baluchistan, Paki...

English: Map of Districts of Baluchistan, Pakistan. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The ownership of resources is another problem for the unrest in the province as the nationalists demand major ownership of the resources of Baluchistan. Baluchistan possesses 36% of total resources of Pakistan like copper, natural gas, aluminum, oil and gold.As Baluchistan and Sindh are biggest producer of gas in Pakistan with 94% of production. Baluchistan is the province with the population of 7,914,000 which is almost 4.5 % of the population of Pakistan. Whereas in gas production province produces 25% of the total gas production but the province is not given any special royalty on gas and oil whereas Punjab with producing just 4% and spending almost 42% of the total gas enjoys the same rates as Baluchistan and Sindh.

Role of Establishment:

Military operations have been another reason for the unrest and anxiety in the province as there have been five military operations in the province in 1948, 1958, 1963, 1973 and 2004 which is still going on. Just in the time of the recent military operation from 2004, 3679 fatalities have taken place. Main areas of the conflict are Sui, DeraBugti and Makran and the major tribes involved in the conflict are Bugti, Marri and Mengals. Although in some of the areas of insurgency, Army is doing its best to control the situation but the role of intelligence agencies have never been constructive in the province. Missing persons is again a big problem faced by Baluchis as well as by Government of Pakistan. These military operations also led to sectarian conflict which resulted in the killings of Shias, killing of government officials by nationalists and religious parties. As according to the data by South Asia terrorism organization the highest number of deaths took place in province were due to nationalists’ attacks and then in sectarian attacks and state operation which were 488 and 285 respectively.Taliban hide outs in the province are another cause for sectarian violence which ultimately leads to the need of military operation. Recently killing of Hazara Shias, which is still going on ultimately led to the need of military operation. But this is a fact that Army is not for ‘peace’ whereas Army is meant to maintain peace by fight but you can maintain peace in your own country by killing people, otherwise this will lead to the situation of East Pakistan in 1971.

False Reservations:

Nationalism in Province:

“Rule the Punjabis, intimidate the Sindhis, buy the Pashtun and honor the Baloch”

This is the principle being followed by some of the nationalists of Baluchistan who demand for a separate country named ‘Greater Baluchistan’.  Although in the province the nationalist parties and organizations are quite strong but they completely oblige the law of Pakistan and completely respect the writ of the state.  There are only few nationalists’ leaders like Brahamdagh Bugti and khair Bakhsh Marri who just to gain their personal goals, exploit the people of Baluchistan and with the help of hostile countries try to harm Pakistan. Although there demand is not even the voice of their own tribes, as Changez Marri son of khair Bakhsh Marri is the MPA in Baluchistan Assembly and currently Contender for the chief minister of Baluchistan. Other prominent leaders Talal Bugti and Shah Zain Bugti of Bugti tribe are Pakistani politicians and fully participate in the state’s matters. There is another reason that the demand for a separate country is not justified that the nationalist leaders demand for People republic of Baluchistan but their geographic location does not allow them to do so. It will be practically impossible to run a country surrounded by Islamic republic of Pakistan, Islamic Republic of Iran and Islamic republic of Afghanistan. Moreover 60% of the population is not Baluchi, only 40% of the population is Baluchi speaking and even among that it is just a very small number which demands for a separate country.

Tribal System in Baluchistan:

Another reason for the grievances of people of Baluchistan lies within the province for last many centuries which is the tribal system or ‘Sardar’ system. Leaders of big tribes like Bugti, Hooth, Lashari, Malkani, Qaisrani, Rais and Marri have been exploiting the people of Baluchistan since before the creation of Pakistan. Leaders of those tribes themselves are well educated but they always discourage any new development in the field of health, education and infrastructure because they think it will lessen their rule on deprived people of Baluchistan

Industrial Development in the province:

Another unjustified reservation of the people of the province is the industrial development in the area which particularly includes Gwadar port, Gwadar-Khuzdar Highway and Kachhi Canal. Government of Pakistan is spending PRs. 52.92 Billion only on Gwadar related projects just to address the grievances of the people of Baluchistan. The main reason of the reservation on these projects is concern about their social, economic and political future in Baluchistan. People of the province think that with this foreign involvement development will be on the cost of culture, traditions and heritage of the province.

The issues and grievances of people of Baluchistan.

Much research has been done on the crises of people of Baluchistan but this paper focuses on few themes such as political, economic and social reservations including independent Baloch Sardars causing resistance to the state interference, ethnic culture, resource exploitation, Industrial development in the province and development lag, religious extremism in Baluchistan. Although the literature presents the historical background but the focus is on current deprivations of people of Baluchistan.

During 2005 the attacks in Baluchistan on natural gas pipeline and including various attacks on army chief Pervaiz Mushraf during the visits was the start of gloomy time in province and it is more than “law and order” situation because of the response of the central government to the growing violence—which has included the introduction of 36,000 government forces and the alleged use of attack aircraft 88 in result of growing violence.

Root of the problem underlies in the tribal and Sardar system a “Baloch Sardars have resisted state interference” mainly due to their projected interests in wealth and influence. This gave birth to provincial autonomy and “self-administration”demands. However on the other hand the resource exploitation is the setting of sun. The unavailability of natural gas and “the gas industry’s wellpaid managers and technicians were almost invariably drawn from outside Balochistan” factor has hurt Baluchis much to demand “self admnistration”.  The complaints of Balochi people about health, education “lowest ranking in the Gender Parity Index (GPI)”, transport are genuine and very few development projects are rooted according to “National Economic Survey (NES)”.

The Social Policy Development Centre 2005 report discovered that the percentage of the population living in a high degree of deprivation stands highest in Baluchistan as compared to the other provinces [88 percent in Baluchistan, 51 percent in the NWFP, 49 percent in Sindh and 25 percent in Punjab]. According to povertyrelated reports, the percentage of the population living below the poverty line stands at 63 percent in Baluchistan. This again, is the highest among all other provinces [26 percent in Punjab, 29 percent in the NWFP and 38 percent in Sindh].

Dr. Waheed Baloch said while giving his view about the current situation in Baluchistan, that the province (Baluchistan) has been deprived of the basic development needs for more than 60 years.

Sardar system which originated in 15th century during the reign of Mir Chakar Khan made its roots strong and the people of Baluchistan are crushed between state and sardar. Furthermore the lack of education, sense of deprivation and poverty has caused the people of the province turned into religious extremists causing civil war including external enemies.

Balochi people view the picture in another way they blame the central government exploit the natural resources as mentioned above and negligence of Baluch populace but on the other hand central government claims that Baluchis are led by the nose by some tribal Sardars.

To analyzes the ethnic dimension of the conflict in order to know how and why Balochi local people have been mobilized to take up arms against central government. Some nationalists complain that Baluchistan has its unique identity and when they are not given proper representation the people from different ethnic groups feel ignored on national levels and they resist new ideas and developments in the province.

Various factors which have increased the strategic significance of Baluchistan—the Global War on Terror, the deep-sea port in Gwadar, and the regional dynamics of Southwest Asia—in order to highlight how these events have led to a change in policy and of existing tensions.

One of the objectives for such interference is to destabilize Baluchistan by stimulating insurgency and creating violations for its detachment from Pakistan.

 The social problems of this province stem from the warlord dominated society that does not let any solutions to be implemented. The political problems of this province are because of its due share of attention whether it is a dictatorship or a democracy as the people of the province are never welcomed in the main stream politics. Solving the economic issues of this province is by far the easiest bit; as all we need to do is give the common  man a share of the this resource rich province. However some of the claims are not valid on part of people of Baluchistan such as the tribal system of Baluchistan itself does not allow people to be politically, socially and economically sovereign and be prosperous. Also the ethnic and religious groups do not let people to free themselves from this trap.

A Ray of Hope

The solution to the problem of Baluchistan lies within itself, as the problems of the province are quite clear unlike the problems like extremism and terrorism. The first and foremast step towards a stable Baluchistan is to minimize the role of intelligence agencies, Frontier Core and Army in the province. Government of Pakistan and Army should be very careful in the matter of Baluchistan, God forbid this situation might end up as it happened in the case of East Pakistan. Although the initiative of NFC award was a better stop towards addressing the grievances of the province but equal allocation of resources must be done on technical basis. These can also be solved by introducing high literacy rate among the people which would integrate the various tribes hence allowing them to take collective action another most important step which should be taken by the Government of Pakistan is to continue dialogues with all the separatist leaders and should let all the Baluchis enter in the main stream politics. Baluchistan has always been the back bone in the development of Pakistan and it will always be a precious asset for the country.

 


This blog is written by the joint collaboration of Osama Sameer, Shaarif Sameer, Nouman Azmat

My Watchlist

Blacklist

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Genre Crime Drama
A FBI agent Elizabeth Keen is asked to work with a former agent Raymond Reddigton called RED. Red is providing FBI with a criminal database to solve crime on case by case basis .RED is shown to be a father like figure for agent Elizabeth who is still unclear that why did he choose her.

Cast                              0.5/1

Cinematography           1/1

Dialogue and music     0.5/1

Storyline                          1/1

IMDb rating                     8/10

My rating                         3/4

The Original

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Genre horror romantic

It is the spinoff vampire diaries. Storyline is based on modern American vampire genre. Vampires can walk in sun if they have a day ring. Originals are currently in New Oreland which they helped to build. Self-proclaimed Noble Elijah is trying to protect his family. Their Rebekah is always eager to find the long last true love .The evil protagonist is the brother called Niklaus who is willing to do everything to get back the ownership of New Oreland.

Cast                                    0.5/1

Dialogue and music            1/1

Storyline                              1/1

Cinematography                  1/1

IMDb rating                           8.4

My rating                              3.5/4

Big Bang Theory
Genre comedy
It is a story about the life and deeds of four nerds. Sheldon is the emotionless genius robot who happens to have a superiority complex. Penny is the hot neighbor who seems to be the only normal person in their inner circle. Howard is an engineer who still lives with his mother. Raj is an Indian who has some issues talking with girls.

Cast                                         1/1
Dialogue and music                 0.5/1
Storyline                                  1/1
Cinematography                      0.5/1
IMDb rating                              8.6/10
My rating                                  3/4

The Tomorrow People

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Genre Science fiction
Story is about human evolution. Homo Superior is the next step in human evolution. They have extraordinary abilities of three T’s” of telepathy, teleportation, and telekinesis  .They are one step away from getting the ability to kill. A human secret organization called ULTRA is hunting them down. The series focuses on Stephen Jameson, a new member of the tomorrow people.

Cast                                       0/1
Dialogue and music               0.5/1
Storyline                                1/1
Cinematography                    0.5/1
IMDb rating                            7.2
My rating                               2/4

American Horror Story

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Genre horror

First season American Horror Story: Murder House, is about a haunting house .Second series American Horror Story: Asylum, is much more complex and resolves around multiple characters and themes which include both the elements of horror and science fiction. Storyline is usually about past events with a few things happening in the real time. The third season, titled American Horror Story: Coven, is about witches and Salem Witch trials.

Cast                                    1/1
Dialogue and music             1/1
Storyline                              1/1
Cinematography                  1/1
IMDb rating                          8.3
My rating                             4/4

Marvel’s Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.

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Genre Sci-Fi

It is based on Marvel’s comic world. S.H.I.E.L.D is the organization with high tech technology working to save the world form internal and external threats. Agent Phil Coulson leads a team of trained S.H.I.E.L.D. agent to monitor supernatural events.

Cast                                       0.5/1
Dialogue and music               0.5/1
Storyline                                1/1
Cinematography                    1/1
IMDb rating                            7.2
My rating                                3/4

Two and a Half Men Season 11

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Genre Comedy

Nothing is same without Charlie sheen. There is no lower limit Charlie’s brother Alan Harper. Element of misogyny is present in this comedy. Show cannot be even called two and a half men because Alan’s son Jake has not appeared in this season

Cast                                     0.5/1
Dialogue and music             1/1
Storyline                              0/1
Cinematography                  0.5/1
IMDb rating                          7.2
My rating                              2/4

Supernatural Season 9

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Genre Horror

Two brothers Sam and Dean are working together to fight evil. They have king of hell of hell in their basement. All the knowledge of the supernatural realm is in their backyard library. Sam and Dean have both died and come back .No arch angel has survived or active after fifth season. As a true fan I must say, it’s time to end the show.

Cast                                        1/1
Acting skills                             1/1
Storyline                                  0.5/1
Cinematography                      0.5/1
IMDb rating                              8.6
My rating                                  3/4

Homeland

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Genre  Thriller

It is based on Israeli series Hatufim .Story starts with the much celebrated homecoming of Nicholas Brody. Nicholas was captured in Iraq. Carrie Mathieson is a CIA operative who thinks that Brody is turned but nobody believes her. Carrie gets intimate with Brody as a ruse to get information but soon feelings get real. Drama also show that the Brody to adjust with new reality and his family.

Cast                                      1/1
Dialogue and music              1/1
Storyline                               1/1
Cinematography                   1/1
IMDb rating                           8.5
My rating                               4/4

War on Terror

Terrorism

The Beginnings

Soviet Russia occupied Afghanistan in 1977 at the pretext of helping the elected government. People of Afghanistan rejected the claim of soviet authorities and considered this act as foreign invasion. Muslim world was predominantly in support of retaliating against Russian military venture in Afghanistan. American aid both in the form of financial and military was provided to Afghans with the help of Pakistani government. A new class or religious warrior or Mujahids was imported from all over the world to fight in Afghanistan.

The role of Pakistan Army

In the era of General Zia ul Haq Pakistan army was very much eager to support the freedom fighters in Afghanistan with the military and financial aid of America to fight against the Russia. Pakistan had strategic interest to support the Afghans in eighties. Ideological basis for military Islam were build to have a constant supply of mujahids (religious soldiers) to fight this war. This led to the spread of ideological basis for terrorism.

Emergence of Taliban

After the downfall of Russian federation whole world left Afghanistan on its own. A young group of fighters called Taliban which literally means the students were able to take control of most of the Afghanistan by force after eliminating all their enemies in a civil war. Taliban enforced a strict religious orthodox sharaia law in Afghanistan. Due to their extreme steps like the demolition of two Buddha statues in bohemian led to their alienation in the community of nations.

9/11 and war on terrorism

9/11was the day when   Osama Bin Laden undertook unprecedented terrorist attacks on American heartland by bombing the twin buildings of world trade center.   Mulla Omer the leader of Taliban provided the refuge to Osama Bin Laden. America was able gain the support of international community and the whole world condemned these barbaric attacks against the civilian population. United Nation passed a resolution condemning these attacks.

US led coalition attacks Afghanistan

American is now on mission of vengeance. NATO also supplied its troops against the war with Taliban. There was no comparison in military contest between the allied troops and Taliban fighters. Allied forces were equipped with the latest military technology and an organized army. On the other hand Taliban were mercenary guerrilla fighters with little or no weaponry as compared to their opponents. After a little struggle allied forces were able to get rid of the theocratic regime of the old Taliban government.

Resistance

Opposition to US forces came from three fronts

1.       Taliban

2.       Pashtun National elemen

3.       Mujahidin

There was not much resistance offered by governing regime of Taliban. They were readily overwhelmed by the US forces. But the main resistance came from the Pashtuns. Pashtuns are a proud race and have always responded to foreign military invasions with their full power. The third opponents are Jihadists groups. The battle cry to save the brother Muslim emirates of Afghanistan was raised again in Pakistan and all over the Muslim world. This time it was not the official propaganda of military establishment in Pakistan but rather it was the ghost of former jihadist allies.

Role of Pakistan

Pakistan is totally and utterly a victim of this unfortunate situation. Pakistan is being blamed for helping the terrorists is a total misunderstanding. Pakistani paramilitary forces are hunting down the terrorist elements in Pakistan.

Who are the good guys?

The long standing invisible bond between military and these religious organization was now broken. In the center of the capitol of Pakistan, a mudrassa religious institute declared the dead terrorists as the true martyrs .Pakistani media and military establishment and government were not ready to compromise the official verdict. A military action was taken against Jamia e Hafsa a religious conservatory for girls. It was manhandled and was the cause of lot of bad PR

The role of Pakistan Army

Pakistani army went into FATA federally administered tribal areas near Durand line (Pak Afghanistan border line) .Pashtuns are the major ethnic group in FATA which shared common heritage with the Pashtun tribes on the other side of the border. In response to international pressure Pakistan army went in those areas to prevent the infiltration of guerrillas from Pakistan to Afghanistan. This military venture of military regime of General Musharraf backfired.

Swat

Swat is district located in the province of KP. It is a mountainous region .Swat was once tourist attraction spot. Sufi Naik Muhammad is religious leader in swat who made a pact with the government of Pakistan to ensure the sharia law (orthodox). After only a few days a military struggle was launched against the state by son in law of Sufi Naik Muhammad .Pakistani army responded in a full retaliation mood. Army was able to take back the control of the city after fierce struggle with so called Pakistani Taliban. Many of the leading commanders of Pakistani Taliban fled to Afghanistan. This has made Pakistani authorities rethink about the relations with Afghanistan.

Government of Pakistan in the war against terrorism

During the start of war against terrorism Pakistan was under the control of military regime of Pervaiz Musharraf. It is generally considered in Pakistan that general Musharraf was a trusted ally of Bush administration. After a long struggle against the dictatorial regime of General Pervaiz Musharraf by the civil society of Pakistan elections were held in 2008.

Pakistan People’s Party led coalition

Before the elections of 2008, one of the most popular leaders of Pakistan Benazir Bhutto was assassinated by the suicide attack done by Pakistani Taliban. People’s party continued the policy of former General Pervaiz Musssaraf to fight against terrorism. In KP province, the leftist liberal party of ANP replaced the ultra conservative religious alliance of MMA.ANP categorically condemned terrorism and strong action against it. Swat was a district in the province of KP which was overran by terrorists. Provincial authorities called for the help of central government to get rid of theses fanatical religious zealots. Muttahida Qaumi Movement MQM the major political party in Karachi have stated a clear policy to stop terrorism.

Pakistan Muslim League PMLN

PMLN have a clear police to establish better foreign relations with America, India and Afghanistan.

Drones

Drone is unmanned aerial vehicle. Drone technology uses an aircraft without a human pilot on board. Drone is controlled by remote stations. Drones are used by American forces as the military tactic to target terrorists in three continents. Drone can also be used for surveillance

Killing less and making more enemies

Drones are in the clear violation of the national airspace of the targeted countries. Drones are killing more and more civilians rather then attacking terrorists. This has made people of Pakistan furious against the American aggression. Another argument against drones is that every individual has the right to defend themselves in courts. But drones take this opportunity from the allegedly guilty party and play the role of both jury and executioner.

But drones are not that bad they are also responsible for killing the most notorious militant leaders wanted by both America and Pakistan for committing war crimes.

A transparent multinational policy should be made for the drone strikes. A trilateral committee should be made where civil and military leadership of America, Pakistan and Afghanistan should sit together and evaluate the pros and cons of the respective drone strike. The Local government should be made the part of intended plan of drone strike. A better system of intelligence can also lead to less collateral damage. This will help to construct better foreign relations between Pakistan and America.

  • 1.       A pre drone attack multilateral plan
  • 2.       Better intelligence
  • 3.       Targeted strikes

Role of media

International media is big time supporter of war against terrorism .Media has helped to build a public support against terrorism.

Pakistani media is predominantly in the favor of strict military action the terrorists. Major media houses have launched a full fledged campaign to mold pubic opinion in favor of launching a nationwide action to crush the terrorists. GEO, Dawn and Capitol TV are the strong advocate of not having any negotiations with the Taliban groups. On the other hand a major segment of the population believes to give militants a last chance to mend their ways and return to civilized society and if they don’t respond to peace offers only the use force against them. Government called an all parties conference on this issue in which it was decided that peace talks should be held as the last chance for peace. Most of the media simply ignores

Conclusion

There is no doubt that terrorism is a bad. But to fight terror with terror is an equally bad strategy

A few individuals have committed terrible crimes but this does not mean that all the Muslims are terrorists. Those individual and organizations that are responsible for terrorism must be held accountable. But the problem is it was not one person or group which was responsible against the attack on American soil. To fight the ideology of terrorism America also used its full might and power.

Imagine a world in which US Aid has been provided for the world health and education rather than fighting proxy wars or invading other countries. American has launched a worldwide hunt down of few individuals.

During the Arab spring revolution decade age old dictatorial regimes were thrown over. It was only made possible by the use of social media. That is just one of the example of what good has done the technology developed and provided by western nations .The military invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq in the twenty first century has been seen as the new era of colonialism in the name of terrorism. This war centric approach of western nation has made Muslim world suspicious of the intentions of America and its allies regarding to Islamic world.

People of Pakistan have rejected terrorism .Pakistani civil and military leadership is united to eliminate the terrorist networks from the country. But people of Pakistan do not support the element of foreign involvement in internal matters.

Transition of the City State of Medina into a Republic

Transition of the City State of Medina into a Republic

Unification of Arabia

Now the Muslim power was unopposed

After the fall of mecca Arabian tribal community had now realized that now with their religious leadership of Quraysh

Submission of the tribes to Islam

As Ibn e Hisam an early Muslim writer aptly describes;

The Arabs were waiting with regard to Islam the decision of the struggle between the Quariash and prophet of god And the reason was that Quraysh were their leaders and guides and were the guardians of the house and the sacred mosque, when mecca was conquered and they realized that there was no power left to fight Muhammad and he was their friend not enemy they entered the faith in large numbers

Tribal Deputations

In the last two years of the Muhammad`s life tribal deputation from whole arabia came to medina to accept the soverigintiy of this newly formed state.

Deputations came from the following tribes , clans or places

1  Muzaina

2 Asad

3  Temim

4  Abs

5   Fezara

6  Murra

7   Tha`laba

8  Saad bin Bak

9   kilab

10 Bani-al-Baqqa

11 kinana

12 Ashja

13 Bahila

13 Sulaim

14 Amir bin Sasa

15 Thaqif of Taif

16 Abd al Qays

17 Bakr bin Wail of Eastern Arabia

18 Taghlib

19 Hanifa of Centeral Arabia,

20 Shayban a branch of Bakr bin Wail

21 Yemen

22 Tai

23 Murad of South Arabia Ghasan on the borders of syria

24 Hamdan in South Arabia

25 Nakha

26 kasham,

27 Mahra in South eastern Arabia

28 Najran a city in the South

29 Jayshan

Proclamtion of the ban on paganism was imposed on feburary-631 A.D.Jizya was imposed on the non muslim  people living in islamic republic of medina

The period of war was over and a process of consolidation began with the appointments of  Scholars, governers , tax collecters , judges and military commanders were disposed to different parts of Arabia .

Islamic State in the Bipolar world of Persia and Byzantium

Islamic State in the Bipolar world of Persia and Byzantium

Byzantine had recently won a decisive victory against Persia and recaptured the province of Syria. Syria was predominantly ethnically an Arabian province but was ruled by romans since time of Caesar. On the other hand Iraq was ruled by Persia which held great number of Arab tribes.

Alif Lam Meem! The Roman Empire has been defeated in a land close by; but they, (even) after (this) defeat of theirs, will soon be victorious after a few years. (Al Quran 30:1-4)

 Arabs living in these provinces embraced both pagan and Christian faiths. Condition of Arabs living under the chains was no better than their brothers living in peninsula. Arab tribes resented the foreign rule and were more than happy to see state of medina as their liberator not the conqueror. Muslims of Arabian peninsula could not remain untouched to what was happening to their brothers in other parts of the neighboring realms.

No man’s land

Arabia was a dry and barren land with no resources what so ever .A country where anarchy prevailed with nomadic tribes always fighting internally maybe this was the reason which saved them from the colonial ambitions of Persia and Rome. They always considered it as a kind of a buffer state.

Muhammad’s letter to Head of States

Muhammad sent letters to different head of states during his last years after having established a strong hold in medina. His emissaries sent to Persian Emperor were met with a cold response from khusro Parvez. But these delegations put an alarm in the minds of these monarchies of a rise of a new force in the political melodrama of seventh century Middle East.

Beginning of the conflict

Muhammad wanted to expand his empire further to the north. His envoys were sent to the tribes living in the north under the patronage of Roman Empire. Muslim emissaries were put to death which infuriated Medina.An army was prepared to fight against the Ghasanid tribes the culprits behind this ferocious act. But Muslim army met with a strong resistance, three of its generals were killed.

Campaign of Tabouk

Muslims considered the involvement of Byzantium forces behind their defeat at Motah. To avenge the dead Muhammad himself gathered the largest army under his command of 30000 men. After arriving at Tabouk and camping there, Muhammad’s army was prepared to face the Byzantines. However the Byzantines were not at Tabouk. They stayed there for a number of days and scouted the area but they never came.