Part 3 The Ballad of East and West : Christendom Strikes Back ; Reconquista

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This article is the part of series about the conflicts between Europe and Asia since antiquity

  • Part 1 Greco-Roman world against Persia
  • Part 2 Arab Invasion of Europe ;  Al Andalus
  • Part 3 Christendom Strikes Back ; Reconquista
  • Part 4 The Holy wars ; Crusades
  • Part 5 The Mongol Horde
  • Part 6 Ottoman Intrusion
  • Part 7 Colonialism

The split mandate ;The rise and fall of first Taifa Spain 

1031 -1095

By the end of 1031 Spain was divide into the petty kingdoms of both Muslims and Christians origins who were always in a constant state of warfare with each other

The Muslim Taifa States were

  • Banu Hammud of Malaga and Algeciras
  • Banu Ziri of Granada
  • Slav rulers of south eastern Spain
  • Banu hud of Sargossa
  • Banu Dhu;l –Nun of Toledo
  • Banu jahwar of cordova
  • Banu abbad of Seville

Christian kingdoms ; West to east

  • Kingdom of Galacia,
  • Kingdom of Leon,
  •  Kingdom ofCastile,
  • Kingdom ofNavarre,
  • Kingdom of Aragon
  • Kingdom of Barcelona

First round of Reconquista

Fernando  1 , the Count of Castile and king of Leon

Ferda1Leon_Sancha

  • War with Zaragoza 
  • War with Toledo
  • Reconquests in Portugal

Pope Gregory 6

Alfonso 6

Alfonso 6 and the fall of Toledo 1085

The African aid

The petty kingdoms of Spain were unable to defend themselves against their christian compatriots.They called for the help of Muslim kingdoms of North Africa.Almohad and Al Murabitun tried to halt the inevitable downfall of Muslim Spain But the northern Christendom was consistent to regain the whole peninsula in which they succeeded few centuries later.

Al-Murabitun / Almoravids Dynasty 1090-1145 and Al Mohad Dynasty 1145-1223

Battle of Sagarajas was a great success for the Muslim Spain it halted the process or reconquista for several generations

Almoravids dynasty

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Another wave of North African Conquerors of

Al Mohad Dynasty 1145-1223

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Christian Reconquista begins again

Fall of Lisbon

Pope Eugene III authorized the crusade in the Iberian peninsula. army of the second crusade was aided the  King Afonso I of Portugal to capture Lisbon after 350 years of Muslim rule 1147

Siege_of_Lisbon_-_Muslim_surrender

Christian conquest in Eastern Spain

Conquest of Almeria,Lerida,fraga and the whole valley of Ebro.

The battle of Al Arcos

the battle was fought between Castile kingdoms and Al Mohads and resulted in Al Mohad victory and sent Shock waves through entire Spain (July 18, 1195)

Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa ; Almohad defeat at al- Uqab

This was an important milestone for conquistadors as after this Andalusian Muslims were unable to call for the foreign support of their Muslim brethren. the battle was fought between the Al Mohad army  under the command of The Caliph al-Nasir (Miramamolí )Christian forces of King Alfonso VIII of Castile were joined by the armies of his rivals, Sancho VII of Navarre, Peter II of Aragon and Afonso II of Portugal in battle. the battle was decisive victory for the Christian Alkalies  forces

Battle_of_Las_Navas_de_Tolosa

African conquers were unable to manage both African territories and Spain against Christians as well as Muslim rulers of Spain.Al Mohad  rulers eventually were driven out of Spain back into their African realm.

Almohads_after_1212

The third Taifa Spain

Now Christian zealot armies were invulnerable by the remaining Muslim duchies.

Reconquista completes

  • The treaty of Cazola 1179
  • The treaty of Almizra 1244

The Spanish Christians divide amongst themselves the noble ordeal of reconquering the Spain form the hand heathen moors

Portuguese Reconquest

  • Conquests of James 1

320px-Jaume_I_Palma

  • Conquest of Balearics
  • Conquest of Valencia
  • The expulsion of Muslims

Ferdinand 3 and the conquest of Al-Andalus

Fernando_III_de_Castilla_02

  • Conquest of Cordova
  • Conquest of jean
  • Conquest of Seville

During the mid of thirteen century virtually the whole Iberian Peninsula was reconquered except the Nasrid kingdom of Granada

Nasrid kingdom of Granada 1232-1492

The Nasrid kingdom was the last refuge of the Muslim masses being expelled from the other parts of Spain. The rulers of Nasrid  duchy were actually the client or fiefs of the Christian neighbors. After the fall of Constantinople in 1453 by the Muslim Ottoman Empire this situation got worsened for them.

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Ferdinand and Isabella were joint in the wholly matrimony which also combine the two states and resulted in the modern Spain. The last of Muslim principalities surrendered in 1492,In the same year Columbus was commissioned to discover Americas .The final phase of reconquista was now completed .A new era of prosperity and riches for Spain and Portugal started after this.

CastillaLeon_1360

Finally the era of Muslim Spain was come to an end .the Muslim population was put through the notorious Spanish inquisition .The Moriscos or the tamed Muslims eventually died out in the new most Catholic Spain.

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