Article 25-A of Constitution of Pakistan obligates the state to provide free and compulsory quality education to children of the age group 5 to 16 years. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such a manner as may be determined by law”. According to Federal Ministry of Education and Provincial Education Ministries education rate of Pakistan is 57 %.there are different type institutions catering different students from diverse social , ethnic ,and economic background.
English Medium; Elitist Schools
Pakistan got its independence from England in 1947. Briton colonized whole South Asia for nearly two centuries including the area comprising f Pakistan’s current geographical position.
English medium schools have a strict English speaking code. They follow the international general certificate of education (or GCE), where SSC and HSC are replaced by Ordinary Level (or O level) and Advanced level (or A Level) respectively.
The recruits for these schools usually belong to the elitist families of Pakistan. Chains of English medium schools have been established.
· Beacon house
· Missionary schools
Urdu Medium; Middle Class Schools
Urdu is the national language of Pakistan. A great number of masses study in this language. Urdu medium schools are spread all over the Pakistan.
Many public and private schools employ Urdu language as medium of instruction .These schools adopt national education system with pre assigned curriculum assigned by Ministry of Education and Training Pakistan.
Urdu medium schools have usually an outdated syllabus which does not fulfill the current needs of students. Government schools have usually poor infrastructure and untrained faculty. Despite all odds these schools have still produced notable alumni e.g., noble laureate Dr Abdus Salam.
MUdrassa schools are the oldest education system of Pakistan. Students belonging to lower income class usually enroll here. Mudrassa education system only provides students with theological knowledge. Mudrassa’s are also being criticized for their radical teachings .MUdrassa’s in Pakistan are diverse in their teachings. Different schools of thought have their own examination boards corresponding to their schools of thought are:
· Tanzim-ul-Madaras (Barelvi School of Thought),
· Wafaq-ul-Madaras (Deoband School of Thought),
· Wafaq-ul-Madaras (Shitties School of Thought),
· Wafaq-ul-Madaras (Ahl e Hadith School of Thought) .
These schools have a large number of students currently studying the offered programs. These schools have traditional conservative pedagogical techniques. Medium of education is usually English but the offered programs are aligned with national education system i.e., SSC and HESC .These schools attract a large number of middle class students with military background.
· Army Public School & College System
· Fauji Foundation Model Schools
· Military Colleges & Cadet Colleges
· National University of Science and Technology
Pakistan’s education system consists of different medium of instruction. People from diverse social ladders are enrolled in different spectrum of education system. A constant struggle is going on with Urdu and medium to gain the role of the only language medium of instruction. Our education system is a tool to maintain the social hierarchy.
In order to become a successful nation we have to synchronize our educational institutions. Either English or Urdu must be selected as medium of instruction for the whole nation. A centralized system of education will provide the people with equal opportunities.