Middle East Conudrum

It was after a thirty year war that continental Europe came on to the negotiation table to sign a truce. The Peace of Westphalia resulted in two major developments: first, the nation sate system; second, freedom of religion. The turbulent region of Middle East is devastated by the ravages of ethnic, sectarian and political problems. Moreover the regional and international proxy wars have exacerbated the crisis. Enter ISIS, a so called terrorist sate, has taken hold of the key strategic locations of the Syria and Iraq. Furthermore, tight grip of the Arab dictators on their countries is loosening which has resulted in one of the most brutal dictatorial regimes in the region. All these factors demand a political solution to a growing human crisis in Near East Firstly, the sectarian conflict in Iraq has worsened since the US led invasion of Iraq. The shiittes, though majority have mostly been living under the Sunnite minority in Iraq. The Baath part of saddam Hussain was a military junta which ruled the country before 2003. Alienating the Sunnite population, the Iraqi government paved the way for violent revolt of Sunnite and in some cases the former Baath party workers. Al-Qaida used this confusion to its own advantage by making a foot base first in syria and then in Iraq.
The curious mix of ethnic and sectarian violence has added fuel to already burning middle east. Belonging to a minority ,the partisan government of Asad family belongs to alwi branch of Shiite tree ; whereas, the former Baat part was a Sunnite led military junta, former ruling over Sunnite majority whereas latter ruling over a Shiite majority. The situation changed , however, after the American invasion on Iraq. The military elements , of former Baath party , now the self prescribed warriors of Islam , led a successful revolt against Iraqi government.With their allies gone, Iraqi government was unable to check the isis advance. The Syrian government was soon threatened by the bold projections of isis into its own territories. Rather to pacify its population, the Bashar ul asad used force onits own population. To support its arab ally, Iranian government started supporting his regime .

The kingdom of Saudi Arabia have extended its support to Syrian rebels; whereas, the iranian government has given arms to Iraqi Shia militias. Further, the regional and international proxies on both sides have failed to deliver a negotiated settlement. The old cold war politics has come to its play. Putin has not only delivered material support to Syrian regime but also provided military personnel to defend the incumbent president. On the other hand, the iraqu government has been supported by the American and NATO alliance on its fight against isis.To this mix the entry Ethnic Kurds ,though snit, but fighting purely on national terms have evoked a Turkish response. With problem of its own Kurdish elements, the Turkish military has a launched a offense to not only stop isis but also to deny the kurds a defacto state in Iraq and Syria. This jungle of warlordism requires taming.

To borrow a liberal metaphor, the jungle needs to be turned into a zoo. How can we achieve a peace in middle east because what happens to Iraq happens to arab world and what happens to Arab world happens to all of Islamic world. We need to use the auspices of both regional and international organizations, both humanitarian and political , to broker a peace deal. The totalitarian regimes need to give into democratic aspirations of their people but only through a peaceful transitions. International community needs to play a constructive not a destructive role in this affair. The regional players should respect the territorial integrity of sovereign states. What middle east needs is another Westphalia.

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The Iraq War

The Iraq War

The age old fertile valley of Mesopotamia is the cradle of human civilization. Iraq has a rich history and culture since the days of Babel and Nineveh. After the Islamic conquest the capitol city of modern day Iraq became a flourishing city of might and knowledge with no equal to its glory. After the fall of Baghdad in 1254 by Mongol horde the steady decline of Islamic empire started.

The colonization of Iraq by the British crown was established through the British Mandate of Mesopotamia was provided by mandate. Sunnite monarchy was established by the British dominion. It was relatively a period of political instability. Republic of Iraq was a result of continuous rebellions. Ba’ath party took over the control of Iraq after a bloody coup. Saddam Husain forced the sitting president to abdicate for his appointment as the sovereign of the country in 1979.

United states of America have always been critical to the Saddam’s regime except the period of Iran Iraq conflict during which US military covertly supported Saddam military regime against the newly emerged theocratic Shiite Iran.

But this was short lived romance. Soon the practical realities make Iraq and Saddam the number one enemy of United States of America .the force annexation of Kuwait by Saddam’s military regime infuriated the neighboring countries. United States was able to land forces in the neighboring Arab countries in the pretext of defending them. Us also launched operation desert storm which annihilated the power of Iraqi military in 90s .this followed the economic embargo on Iraq by the UN to stop it from producing weapons of mass destruction

In 2003 UN passed a resolution of military invention to stop the Iraqi programs of weapons of mass destruction

Casus Beli of Iraq war

Alleged arsenal of Weapons of mass destruction possesses by Iraqi regime

So called links between Al Qaeda and Iraqi government

There are rumors that the real reason behind the invasion of iraq was its oil resves of the country.

Public opinion

A media trail of WMDs in Iraq was launched by the popular mainstream media of the western world. This provided the US and UK with the public opinion

Soon America, Briton and their allies launched a military invasion of Iraq on March 20, 2003.iraq military was of no match to allied forces. After a period of few months fighting, Iraq was under the complete control allied troops. Soon after the conquest of Iraq elections were held and a civilian government formed in Iraq.

Resistance to foreign occupation

1.       the nationalists

2.       the Jihadist(religious fighter )

o   Sunnite

o   Shiite

3.       The separatists

4.       The remaining elements of the previous Bath regime

Effects of Iraq war

Iraq war has established the hegemony of English speaking world over the state of Iraq. America and its allies have continued an evacuation plan according to which American forces will leave Iraq  by 2015 leaving it to local administration.

This war has left Iraq in ruins. There is a continuous civil war going on in Iraq. Sectarian violence is reaching its peak thanks to the neighboring countries of Saudi Arab and Iran who are fighting their proxy wars. The separatist Kurdish elements are fighting for their liberation.

Civilian casualties and destruction of public property has left Iraq in distress.

The face negotiation theory, developed by Stella Ting-Toomey, explains the culture-based and situational factors that shape communicators’ tendencies in approaching and managing conflicts. The main purpose of this theory is to resolve the conflicts

Resolve conflict

By avoiding the conflict

We can resolve the conflict by avoiding the situation of conflict in the first place.

Be negotiation

·         The peace negotiation between the Iraqi government and the allied forces id the key to the permanent solution to conflict in Iraq. A stable government if Baghdad will ensure the safety of national borders and territorial claims of Iraq against internal an external factors.

By ending conflict with another conflict

·         America and its allies tried to end the dispute with Saddam Husain by starting a whole military campaign against the Islamic republic of Iraq.