Textbook Version of the History of Pakistan

( This is satirical piece which explores the textbook version of the History of Pakistan )

The text book version of the history which is being taught in Pakistani schools conveniently leaves some facts out of the picture while emphasizing others.  As a student, I have been taught an education curriculum which starts from the ancient civilizations of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa whose sole purpose is to tell that we are very different from Ganges civilization. So Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa can also be point added to our long list of two nation ideology   Invasion of Sind, by young Muhammad Bin Qasim comes next, who conquered Sind to help a damsel in distress. Next comes in line the great Mehmood Ghaznavi who attacked India and the territories that now include Pakistan , 17 times to establish the reign of peace. Iqbal’s Favourite Ayyaz was Mehmood’s slave turned brother which was a very loyal subject. This tells us the lesson that being loyal as a slave can revive the good old days for us. the next chapter includes Dehli Sultans who were good and wise rulers who kept the majority of Indians who happen to be Hindus kept in line by using strict disciplinarian measures. Yes, they were also the great Muslims too.

The next chapter in our history and Pakistan studies books is about the Mughals. Mughals were great architects and lovers, if you don’t believe it just look at Taj Mahal , Red Fort and Shahi Qila Lahore and their harem  . First come Babur, who defeated his counterpart in the famous first battle of Panipat and established the noble and pious Mughal dynasty. Babur was succeeded by his son Humyun who was a weak ruler due to his love for trinity of evil women, luxury, and infidels. Akbar, God damn him, was not such a pious ruler. He tried to rule justly over both Hindus and Muslims which made many Muslims question his sanity. The topic of Jodha Akbar is not included in our history textbooks because it was an unholy matrimony and just a political alliance and not something worth of troubling our young minds with. Jahangir was a great lover, first he seduced Anar Kali by his princely charms then his love exploits include the marriage with Noor jahan . His son, Shah Jahan followed in his footsteps and also became a great lover. He built the famous Taj mahal for his dead wife and made a huge change in the architecture of tombs by first time introducing a new shape to bury the dead since the times of pyramids in ancient Egypt..There is some western propaganda about spending huge sums of money on a building but not on the welfare or education of the people which is a total lie. After making this wonder there was no left over money to spend on frivolities like welfare of the masses. Next came the true Muslim ruler, Aurangzeb, his first noble ordeal was to imprison his father and to kill his brother in the name of Islam. A few of his other achievements include the numerous assassination, unnecessary expansion of the Mughal Empire and emptying his treasury. He was the last great ruler of Mughal Empire and is considered a saint for his numerous atrocities.

Next mughal rulers were weak so therefore we only mention their weakness in our textbooks.

Invasion of Nadir Shah of Iran, expansion Maratha Empire and Sikh Intrusions to Delhi left mughal baffled .The central authority of the mugahls weakened, which led to the establishment of hundreds of the small and big princely states. In between all of this mayhem there was second and third battle of Panipat .Students particularly fell victim in remembering the name of belligerents and the dates.

The British period started from the establishment of East India Company. Once British paid taxes to Indians to trade, later they started collecting taxes form Indians for trade. “Company Bahudur” which translates into the brave company, perfected the golden rule of, “divide and rule”. In 1757 the British defeated the Nawab (Lord) of Bengal and gained the first foothold in India, which was due to the treachery of some army officers in his ranks. According to our textbooks, this was actually the wrath of God and not the combination of discipline and better technology of the British. Later a nuisance was created by Tipu Sultan, who was only succumb, by the British after their treacherous diplomatic alliances with the neighbor princely states which were later consumed by the colonial giant by using the same treatment. There is almost a consensus between the desi writers in India and Pakistan, which is itself a strange thing, that the British victories had nothing to do with their bravado or military genius of the British forces but were actually the result of monsoon. Pakistani textbooks mention nothing about his earlier defeats which lead to the final siege of his capital in which he was killed. You may wonder if he was doing so great then what went wrong which led to his eventual demise, but you are wrong in thinking because first of all a student is not to think but to remember . Second it is not the scope of the textbook to discuss the short comings of the Muslim rulers. Our textbook mention no Hindus or Sikhs in their freedom struggles against the colonialism .Once asked about this, one of the authors of a textbook said, on the condition of  keeping his name confidential that it is the duty Indian authors to promote their own heroes not ours and it can also tone down the hate between two sates which could be totally against the spirit of the books.

The war of independence of 1857 also commonly known as Indian mutiny culminated the struggle against the British tyranny .Books mention numerous reason for the starting of the war but fail to mention good reasons for the failure of revolt. Maybe it was due to new rules of engagement by the British in which elephants were kept out War Theater. Some authors claim that the war was lost before it even started because English forces cheated by using technology in an otherwise conventional warfare

Age of Discovery: The Two Nation Theory 1857-1940

The search for the two nation theory begins from this period of time. It is believed that the intelligentsia of newly founded Pakistan sat together after the independence and read each and every statement of the Muslims Hindu and British leadership alike to gather all the quotations for two nation theory which now boast the collection of 4 to 6 quotes.

Now I would like to mention a few short bibliographies of our forefathers being taught in our course books

Allama Iqbal

He was a great philosopher and poet .He wrote poetry in Urdu and Persian. His Urdu poetry is so difficult that some Pakistanis believe it to be some kind of Persian dialect. The main themes in his poetry include ego (Khudi), greatness of early generations of Muslims  and Gabriel his favorite buddy. He is also credited with one or two vague quotes about establishing a Muslim state in India.

Sir Syed Ahemd Khan

The old pictures of a man with huge beard are known to be of Syed Ahmed khan.His major contribution to the freedom struggle includes establishing a chain of few schools much like beacon house ,roots and APS but on much smaller scale. He told Muslims to get foreign education, learn English and obey English rule. Unlike the infamous Mir Jafar and Mir Sadiq who are still abused for colluding with British, he is considered a to be hero to work alongside the British. He was nobody in Delhi before the war broke out, after that he made something of himself. He was a prolific writer who publish everything that he had written along with some of other people’s work

An Essay on Quaid e Azam   (10/10)

Quaid e Azam was born as Muhammad Ali Jinnah on 25 December 1876. He was the son of Poonjah Jinah .He went to England to get higher education. He was married before his visit to abroad as it was the tradition in those days to save the young lads from getting into the trouble of falling in for “Gori Maims”. He came back and started practicing law. He was, is and will be the greatest lawyer to ever live on the face of earth. He joined Indian National Congress to pursue peace but was disappointed to see that Congress only wanted to free India from English rule. He also joined Muslim League, at that time it was known as All India Muslim League which has nothing to do with the Q League of today. Rattanbai fell in love with Quaid because he was the most handsome, good looking and the tallest man in the whole world .At this stage, he was further disappointed by the conditions in India. He went back to England to relax and chill. When he came back he envisioned a new country in a dream. In 1940 he announced that a new country for Muslims is in making .He worked day and night to make Pakistan. On August 14, 1947 Pakistan came to be, only due to the efforts of one man and little tiny bit help from AIML

After the independence of Pakistan he made a lot of speeches in which the speech of 11 August 1947 is of no importance to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. He also introduced a lot of new government organizations which went bad and rogue after the death of great Quaid except the chivalrous armed forces of Pakistan which have saved our country on numerous occasions. He died on 11 September 1948, maybe of some conspiracy either of western or domestic nature.

In the last I’ll be talking about the history of Pakistan


Muhammad Bin Qasim invaded Sind in 712. After that there is no mention of Sind in the history books before the birth of Quaid e Azam.


Islam spread through saints in this area who opted for Sufi poetry to spread their message. By the way, there is no mention that the famous saint patron of Lahore Data Gunj Bakkhsh came with army of Mehmood, the warlord of Ghazni. Lahore and Multan were and still are the major cities of Punjab. The next reference about Punjab comes as the birthplace Allama Iqbal. A few books mention some kind of Sikh era in Punjab but it is portrayed more of as fiction then as reality ,  so student don’t bother to inquire about it.


The first time we hear about KP is as a border dispute more commonly known as Durand Line. Formerly known as NWFP (North Western Frontier Province) , because of its geographical location it is believed by some to a frontier province in the north west of British India.


Sorry no record was found.


Kashmir was unlawfully bonded in a forceful marriage with India. Since the ancient times the valley of Jammu and Kashmir is the integral part of Pakistan. A same kind of claim is also put forward by India which is not the acceptable version in Pakistani textbooks.

History of Pakistan

From Quaid to trembling democracy 1948-1958

It is mentioned in every textbook that Pakistan is now the “promised land” of the “chosen people “after the fall Israelites from the eyes of Gods. Quaid was the philosopher king as mentioned by the Plato. After him, much like what happened after Aurangzeb, his successors fought with each other over the politics of Pakistan. It is said in some ancient chronicles of that time that angels help the first constitutional assembly of Pakistan to draft Objective Resolution as the pretext of the constitution. But the constitution of 1956 was not so fortunate; it died as an infant just two years after its birth.


  • Politicians are a treacherous race
  • Law making is a difficult time and taking process
  • Pakistan is no less then America as nobody in America knows who killed Kennedy, we Pakistani people also don’t know about the murderer of Liaqaut Ali Khan.
  • Bureaucracy is of no use.
  • Our foreign policy can be summarized as

We love China, China loves us back (strictly platonic love)

We hate India, India hates us back (divorced)

We love Muslim countries (bros before hos)

A for Allah, A for aid, A for America, A for Afghanistan

General Ayub

Pakistan army could not anymore be the mere spectator. General Ayub has the moral, legal, social, religious ……..  Responsibility to save Pakistan form clutches of the democratically elected corrupt politicians. General Ayaub was also the Mujahid e Awal in indo-pak war of 1965


Made one unit

Gave Pakistan a new constitution of 1962

Made new press laws to curb the freedom of speech

Pakistan was able to defeat enemy aggression of a much larger Indian army. Pakistani Armed forces were now in a position to recapture Delhi and reestablish the Muslim empire on Mughal grounds. According to few neutral sources this is a lie but our books clearly mention the golden rule of spotting a liar which states “who says you that you are a liar is actually a liar himself”,which says a lot.

General Yayha and peaceful fall of Bangladesh

There was a peaceful transition of power from a General Ayub to General Yayha. Pakistan had successfully developed and adapted an undemocratic form of government system. General Yahayha was a drunk and fool. He appointed military personnel as the governor general of Bengal colony.

A few clarifications

Pakistani armed forces are comprised of saints so the baseless allegations of rape and genocide against them are baseless

We were not defeated in Bangladesh by any standards to save the countless lives of enemy combatants in an unnecessary war, we voluntarily surrendered our arms (obviously it was western pressure if we would have fought we would have won the war. Note here the same principle of grammar composition is involved ,if ali would have studies ali would have passed the exams)

The Bolshevik Bhutto

Mr. Bhutto is considered to be of Pakistani origin and the only communist to own thousands of acres of land   .In his famous speech Mr Bhutto claimed to drink a little to avoid drinking human blood. This does not tell us anything about whether Mr. Bhutto was a vampire or not. Mr. Bhutto was the father of Benazir Bhutto, the future prime minister of Pakistan. He established the new democratic party/dynasty of Bhutto which has ruled intermittently with House of Nawaz /democratic part known as PMLN. He is also famous for hosting OIC meeting in Lahore. Some conspiracy loving historians say that the west could not see Muslim block so they …..(the text is missing due to the legal spying of NSA).

Mr. Bhutto himself conducted elections and made sure that free and fair election would only result in his victory. After angry protest against the rigging in the elections, So , once again to save the country army took over . Here the most famous dictum associated with history repeats itself is rejected.

By applying a logical principle

If Army takes over, elections are rigged (1970s)

Elections are rigged (2014)

Therefore, Army takes over (2015)

As it did not happen, hence we can reject the hypothesis

General Zia ul Haq

He is also known as the father of the extremism. His first act as the non-democratically elected ruler was to hang Mr. Bhutto. As per the military tradition of his predecessors he also conducted free and fair elections. He considered himself as the savior and avatar of some dead Muslim general. Despite not fighting any real war he is credited by some for defeating the USSR in Afghanistan , thus ending the cold war and bringing peace and prosperity to not only the Pakistan but to the whole world. He is also the jihadist per excellence to reinvent the concept of Jihad.He is the only Pakistani dictator to successfully export the two nation theory to Afghanistan

There are others in Pakistan who claims general Zia to be the anti-Christ. They blame the general to bring intolerance to otherwise an already intolerant society. Feminists and human right activists believe him to be incarnation Hitler

He is not related to the cricketers Inzama ul Haq and Misbah ul Haq.

The Westminster style of sporadic dynastical democracy was introduced in Pakistan in late 1980s. The order of the Succession is

Benazir Bhutto

The PPP government was dismissed after the charges of corruption

Nawaz Sharif

The PML government was dismissed after the charges of corruption

Benazir Bhutto

The PPP government was dismissed after the charges of corruption

Nawaz Sharif

The PML government was dismissed after the charges of corruption



Thesis Proposal on “Electronic Media and Minorities”


Pakistan is a predominantly Muslim majority country where 96.4 percent people affiliated themselves with Islam as their religion. (theguardian, 2011). The religious minoritities consist of Christians, Sikhs, Ahamdis , Hindus which make less than 5 percent of the total population of Pakistan according to the state owned Population Census  Organization. (www.census.gov.pk)    The  state has define Non-Muslim as  “non Muslim means a person who is not a Muslim an d includes a person belonging to Christian  , Hindu , Sikh, Budhist or Parsi community , a person of Quadiani group or Lahori group(who call themselves Ahmadis or by any other name ) , or a Bahai , and a person belonging to any of the scheduled castes .”  (The Constitution of Islamic republic of  Paksitan)

Minorities in Pakistan are the growing victim of radicalization and talibanization in the country. In recent years an increase in the frequency of violence related crimes perpetuated against minorities has been observed. Pakistan institute of peace study has reported a 53 percent increase in the crimes against minorities in year 2012 as compared to 2011. (PIPS, 2013)

This alarming trend has sent the shock waves of terror throughout the nation and the entire world. Most of the atrocities are committed by the extremist groups e,g Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat (ASWJ), Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (Pakistani Taliban), Sipah-e-Mohamadi Pakistan (SMP), Jundullah, Sunni Tehrik (ST), Tehrik-e-Jafria Pakistan (TJP). (Yusuf, 2012).Most of these organizations are banned by the Pakistan government due to their alleged involvement in sectarian killings by the hand of their militant wings. The Mudrassa education culture is also one of the causes of growing   religious intolerance. (Chandran, 2003)The most tragedy struck areas include cities/regions of Karachi, Quetta, Gilgit and Kurram Agency where multiple problems are faced by the minorities. (Group, 23 January 2014)

Electronic media in Pakistan has progressed rapidly during the last decade. A number of new news channels have been started which is an indicator of a relatively free press as compared to the era of military rule where freedom of expression was a rare commodity.

Electronic media in Pakistan has given coverage to minority related issues and problems. A number of incidents were highlighted and given primetime coverage which has generated positive response from both government and civil society to get rid of this social evil. Most of the coverage is just about narrating the issue in news and discussions but practical solutions are rarely offered.

– Context of the problem

Evolution of media during the last few years has played a constructive role in the lives of common people of Pakistan. Minorities in Pakistan are under a constant threat of persecution on religious grounds which is an alarming trend. Our research will focus on the role of electronic media in portraying the stereotypes about minorities and what kind of impact is it creating for the populace of religious minorities Pakistan.

– Background

Pakistan is a country with a Muslim majority population. There is also a considerable number of non Muslims currently residing in Pakistan. The founding father of the nation, Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah’s opening speech to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on 11 August, 1947 clearly indicates that the state will provide religious freedom to all the people living in Pakistan. Following is a quote from Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah’s inaugural speech to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on 11 August, 1947. “You are free; you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other place of worship in this State of Pakistan.” (Jinnah, 1947)

Ahamdis were declared as non Muslim after the constitutional amendment in 1974.The era of General Zia ul Haq is known for radicalization of state and society. Militant wings of sectarian organizations have caused havoc among the minority groups of Pakistan in recent years

Media has played an imperative role in developing constructive attitude in the psyche of the nation. Media has created awareness on the political and social issues by the use of both traditional and electronic resources. Media has been particularly successful in promoting awareness of political issues which is evident by the coverage news channels. The question here is how much and what type of coverage is given to minorities in electronic media.

– Definition of terms

According to the merriam-webster a group of people who are different from the larger group in a country, area, etc., in some way (such as race or religion) can be called as minority. (merriam-webster) .Pakistan is a country with diverse population consisting of multiple ethnic, lingual and religious minorities. In this research paper this term will be use for religious minority groups only.

Electronic media is a term that is usually used in contrast with print media. It is used for broadcast or record medium that use electronic equipment and require electronic encoding for their propagation.

– Literature Review/Research Survey

Condition of minorities in Pakistan   and representation of minorities in Pakistani media

The research done by Jinnah Institute indicates that minorities recognize themselves as Pakistani national, but even then they are persecuted on the basis of their religious identity. (Faruqi, 2011)

Munir 2002 has indicated that the religious extremism as the consequence of ‘unholy’ alliance between fundamentalism and military in past has given an opportunity to religious extremist groups to manipulated the media in order to serve their own interests. (Munir, 2002)

Ansari, M. (2006).has reported that life of Ahamadis in Pakistan is in a situation of constant peril. Persecution on the basis of faith has caused havoc for the religious minorities in Pakistan. (Ansari, 2006)

The trend of breaking the story first and to get the highest ranking amongst news channel have compromised the journalistic ethics, non partisanship and objective reporting .This has negative impact on the lives of minorities. The author believes that if the current trend in media goes uncheck likes this, it would create an atmosphere of religious intolerance. (International Media Support, July 2009)

Syed in 2006 examines in his research of two leading Urdu-language newspapers between February and July 2006 found out that there is overwhelming emphasis on Pakistan’s Islamic identity, which undermines other forms of identity including religious facet of minorities. (Syed, 2008)

In a study done by Shazad Ali about the portrayal of minorities in Pakistani newspaper the author suggested that there is a positive coverage of minorities with the exception of Ahamdi community. The maximum number of issues were highlighted about Christian community in the elite English newspapers of Pakistan. (Ali, 2010)

In another research done by the Qandeela Ambreen corroborates that the coverage of minorities in newspapers of Pakistan e.g. daily dawn, The News and nation is mostly positive. (QandeelaAmbreen, January 2014)

Bila Khaled conducted a study on “Minorities’ Stereotypes in Pakistani Films” which was presented in Official Conference Proceedings The European Conference on Film & Documentary 2014.The study found out that the negative stereotypes about minorities are reinforced through Pakistani films and is one of the major causes of embarrassment for the minorities in Pakistan. (Fatah, 2014)

Representation of minorities in international media


The analysis of international media will show that how minorities are depicted by international media. How much and what type of coverage whether positive or negative is given to the issues of minorities.

The research argues that the stereotypes and intolerant opinions are formulated and reinforced through the mainstream media in Denmark and Muslim minority in particular is a victim to it. (Hussain, October 2000)

Minority ownership of media is a rare phenomenon even in America. The research done by Turner, S. Derek and Mark Cooper corroborate that minorities comprise 33 percent of the entire U.S. population, but own a total of only 44 stations, or 3.26 percent of all stations. (Cooper, 2006)

Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies focuses on the role of the media in multicultural and diverse ethnic landscape of Europe. It investigated the significance of a range of media through an analysis of a diversity of cultures and cultural practices. (Georgiou, 2005)

Whiteb suggests that mass media organizations needs more hiring from minorities in order to give their due share of positive coverage. The study also suggests us that there is a small change in the representation of minorities as compared to the increase in their population. (Whiteb, 2009)

Gerbner found out that African American population was somewhat given representation on primetime television but other minorities in Unites States were either rare or absent from television. (Gerbner, 1970)

Georgia (2000) described in her research “Mapping Minorities and their Media: The National Context UK

Report” that the British mainstream media is mainly sensitive to issues of racism and minority exclusion, it is probably the reason why Briton is are more tolerant towards minority groups as compared to other Eurocentric countries. (Georgiou M. , 2000)

Opportunities for further research

  • This research can provide a platform for further studies about portrayal of religious minorities in digital media.
  • It can be helpful to follow a line of investigation about media’s relationship with its audiences.
  • It can be helpful for the researchers of political science and humanitarian research projects to eradicate the social evil of persecution of minorities and can also be useful to create practical solutions for this phenomenon.
  • This thesis can also be helpful to enhance the scope of current research to evaluate the conditions of minorities in Pakistan done by NGOs and humanitarian organizations
  • Government can build up further research on policy and decision making related to minorities and their portrayal on media

– Hypothesis/Research Question

H1                                The coverage of minority related issues in electronic media is directly proportional to the number of incidents related to religious minority groups in Pakistan.

Null Hypothesis          The coverage of minority related issues in electronic media is inversely proportional to the number of incidents related to religious minority groups in Pakistan

H2                                Electronic media is giving positive coverage to minority issues.

Null hypothesis           Electronic media is giving negative coverage to minority issues
– Methodology

“Research methodology is a systematic way to solve a problem. It is a science of studying how research is to be carried out. Essentially, the procedures by which researchers go about their work of describing, explaining and predicting phenomena are called research methodology.” (S. Rajasekar, 2006.)



The selection of news programs, news coverage and analysis of minority related issues on digital media of Pakistan will be on the basis of portrayal of minorities that deals with religious persecution or hatred towards a certain religious community.



  • News
  • Current Affair Programs
  • News Packages
  • News Websites



Programs will be only selected form Pakistani digital media



Coding will be categorizes as positive, neutral and negative labeled as‘+’, ‘0‘, ‘-’ respectively.


Ali, S. (2010). Portrayal of Minorities in Elite English Press of Pakistan:. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences (PJSS) , 141-156.

Ansari, M. (2006, December). Minorities in Pakistan. Retrieved November 28, 2014, from http://www.thepersecution.org/di/newline_p.pdf.

Chandran, S. (2003). Sectarian Violence in Pakistan. Retrieved 11 29, 2014, from IPCS ISSUE BRIEF: http://www.ipcs.org/pdf_file/issue/1614934887IB09-SubaChandran-SectarianViolencePak.pdf

Cooper, T. S. (2006). Out of the Picture ; Minority & Female TV Station Ownership in the United States . Washington: Free Press.

Faruqi, M. (2011). Jinnah Institute Research Report, A report on the status of religious minorities. Retrieved 11 29, 2014, from http://www.jinnah-institute.org/: http://jinnah-institute.org/programs/open-democracy-initiative/ji-fos/306-a-question-of-faith-a-report-onthe-status-of-religious-minorities-in-pakistan

Fatah, B. K. (2014). Minorities’ Stereotypes in Pakistani Films. The European Conference on Film & Documentary 2014, (pp. 11-26). Brighton, United Kingdom.

Georgiou, M. (2000). Mapping minorities and their Media: The National Context – The UK. Retrieved 11 29, 2014, from lse.ac.uk: www2.lse.ac.uk/media@lse/research/EMTEL/Minorities/…/ukreport.pdf

Georgiou, R. S. (2005). Editorial Introduction: Media and Minorities in Multicultural Europe. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies , 433-441.

Gerbner, G. (1970). Cultural Indicators: The Case of Violence in Television Drama. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science , 69-81.

Group, I. C. (23 January 2014). Policing Urban Violence In Pakistan. International Crisis Group ;Asia Report N°255 , 4.

Hussain, M. (October 2000). Islam, Media and Minorities in Denmark. Current Sociology , 95-116.

International Media Support. (July 2009). Between radicalisation and democratisation in an unfolding conflict:Media in Pakistan. Denmark: International Media Support.

Jinnah, M. A. (1947, August 11). ADDRESS OF THE FOUNDER OF PAKISTAN QUAID-E-AZAM MUHAMMAD ALI JINNAH ON 11TH AUGUST, 1947 TO 1ST CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY. Retrieved 11 29, 2014, from http://www.na.gov.pk/: http://www.na.gov.pk/en/content.php?id=74

merriam-webster. (n.d.).

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.).

Munir, I. (2002). The Consequences of Fundamentalism on Pakstani Media. SimonFraserUniversity.

Paksitan, T. C. (n.d.). http://www.na.gov.pk/uploads/documents/1333523681_951.pdf.

PIPS. (2013). Sectarian Violence. Pakistan Institute for Peace Studies .

POPULATION BY RELIGION. (n.d.). Retrieved 11 29, 2014, from Population Census Organization: http://web.archive.org/web/20140402081116/http:/www.census.gov.pk/Religion.htm

QandeelaAmbreen. (January 2014). Representation of Religious Minorities in Pakistani Print Media: a study of Daily Dawn, the News and the Nation. American International Journal of Contemporary Research .

  1. Rajasekar, P. P. (2006.). RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. Retrieved 11 29, 2014, from http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0601009v2

Syed, J. (2008). The representation of cultural diversity in Urdu-language newspapers in Pakistan: A study of Jang and Nawaiwaqt. South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies , 31 (2), 317-347.

theguardian. (2011, 1 11). http://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2011/jan/28/muslim-population-country-projection-2030. Retrieved 11 23, 2014, from http://www.theguardian.com: http://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2011/jan/28/muslim-population-country-projection-2030

Whiteb, D. Z. ( 2009). Women and minorities on network television news: An examination of correspondents and newsmakers. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media , 215-223.

http://www.census.gov.pk. (n.d.). POPULATION BY RELIGION. Retrieved 11 29, 2014, from http://www.census.gov.pk: http://web.archive.org/web/20140402081116/http:/www.census.gov.pk/Religion.htm

Yusuf, H. (2012, July). Sectarian violence:Pakistan’s greatest security threat? Retrieved 11 29, 2014, from NOREF Report: http://www.peacebuilding.no/Regions/Asia/Pakistan/Publications/Sectarian-violence-Pakistan-s-greatest-security-threat/(language)/eng-US

Political parties of Pakistan

Political parties of Pakistan

Muslim league

Muslim league is the oldest party in the country. Muslim league was established in the colonial India in 1906 to bridge the gap between the British administration and Muslim population. But the real struggle was to Muslim population realize to fight for independent country. Muslim league have two  fought on two fronts. The majority of population in India was wanted united India. Muslim league was able to win the majority of specified Muslim seats in the elections of 1946-1946.Muslim league was able to create a Pakistan on the basis of two nation theory in the charismatic leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

After the creation of Pakistan Muslim league was not able to deliver the “promised land”. Party was filled with corrupt politicians and ambitious leaders who betrayed party and country for personal gains. After a few years party was split into many regional Muslim leagues.

During the martial law of President Ayub, Muslim league come under the wings military establishment. After 1965 war president Ayub lost his popularity and so does Muslim league

Muslim league is considered a right wing nationalist party. It has been credited for the party which was able to win the freedom of the country. But it is also criticized for the continuous support of military regimes. Muslim is now completely under the wings of Sharif family. Nawaz Sharif is also the current prime minister of the country who belongs to Muslim league.

Pakistan people’s party

Zulifqar ali Bhutto was a vibrant and energetic young foreign minister in president Ayub’s parliament. After the Tashqind agreement between India and Pakistan, Bhutto used this as political leverage and started his own party.

Ayub’s regime was successful in monetary reforms but the lowest ladder of the society was not able to get the benefits of these fiscal policies. Bhutto was able to raise the public tide against the military establishment and in the elections of 1970 PPP was able to get majority of seats from the West Pakistan.

People party is considered a major leftists and liberal party in Pakistan. The initial leadership of the party was also influenced by communism as Bhutto nationalizes many economic institutions. Critics of PPP have disapproved of its leadership style and blame it to have become the family party of Bhutto and Zardari family. PPP is currently the ruling party of Sind and the sitting opposition in National assembly.

Awami league

On the other hand after the collapse of Muslim league in East Pakistan Mujeeb ur Reham established his own party called Awami league. Bengal was now furious about the grievances and were ready to threw the military out. Despite getting the majority in recent elections Awami league was denied to have the government.

General Yayha appointed general Tikka Khan as the military governor general in East Pakistan. This whole operation was a disaster, majority of the native population stood against the army in the leadership of Mujeeb ur Rehamn’ Awami league. A civil war broke out in East Pakistan. Indian forces invaded East Pakistan in the pretext of helping the Bengali population which was welcomed by Awami league. Awami league was able to change East Pakistan in the new country of Bangladesh in the 1971 after fierce struggle.


JI was founded in 1941 in Lahore by a religious leader Abul Ala Maududi  . Jamaat-e-Islami has its branches in Bangladesh, Pakistan and India. JI is founded on moderate religious philosophy. It is perhaps the only party in Pakistan who regularly holds inter-party elections. JI is famous for its student organization known as Islami Jamiate Tulaba. JI is now the part of a coalition government in KP .JI is currently headed by Munawar Hassan.

Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam

Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam is an orthodox religious conservative party. It is a far right conservative party who has a strong standing in KP.Fazl ur rehamn group dominates the party. Currently it is in opposition in both national and provincial assembly.

Pakistan Tahreek e insaf

PTI was established by Imran khan  a renowned cricketer.


Baluchistan ….. Significance in Pakistan

Baluchistan ….. Significance in Pakistan

Map showing Marri tribal areas in Balochistan

Map showing Marri tribal areas in Balochistan (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The province of Baluchistan has different languages, cultures and ethnicities and the province has rooted traditions, customs and norms. The tribal and ‘Sardar’ system is the uniqueness in the culture of Baluchistan and the people stick to their values at any cost. Unfortunately before the creation of Pakistan the people of Baluchistan were deprived of their basic rights and the province was considered backward and recessive. After the partition of Sub-continent it was thought that the residents of Baluchistan will get their basic rights and the government of Pakistan will address their grievances and complaints.

To identify that the whether the grievances of Baluchistan are just merely the fault of Government of Pakistan and other provinces or there is something wrong internally in the province.  

Research statement:

Are the social, economic and political grievances of the people of Baluchistan justified?

Justified Grievances:

Politics in Baluchistan:

There is no doubt that the people of Baluchistan have been deprived from their rights which is clearly reflected in the province’ budget, law and order situation in terms of five military operations and deprivation of the province with its resources.  As the Baluchis are restrained from main stream politics as we can see the recent example of Sardar Akhtar Mengal who was considered as one of the prominent separatist leader in the province, but when he wanted to join the main stream politics every tactic was made to stop his party from using their democratic right to contest the elections. Even in past Governments used the language of military operations instead of dialogues.

Ownership of Resources:

English: Map of Districts of Baluchistan, Paki...

English: Map of Districts of Baluchistan, Pakistan. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The ownership of resources is another problem for the unrest in the province as the nationalists demand major ownership of the resources of Baluchistan. Baluchistan possesses 36% of total resources of Pakistan like copper, natural gas, aluminum, oil and gold.As Baluchistan and Sindh are biggest producer of gas in Pakistan with 94% of production. Baluchistan is the province with the population of 7,914,000 which is almost 4.5 % of the population of Pakistan. Whereas in gas production province produces 25% of the total gas production but the province is not given any special royalty on gas and oil whereas Punjab with producing just 4% and spending almost 42% of the total gas enjoys the same rates as Baluchistan and Sindh.

Role of Establishment:

Military operations have been another reason for the unrest and anxiety in the province as there have been five military operations in the province in 1948, 1958, 1963, 1973 and 2004 which is still going on. Just in the time of the recent military operation from 2004, 3679 fatalities have taken place. Main areas of the conflict are Sui, DeraBugti and Makran and the major tribes involved in the conflict are Bugti, Marri and Mengals. Although in some of the areas of insurgency, Army is doing its best to control the situation but the role of intelligence agencies have never been constructive in the province. Missing persons is again a big problem faced by Baluchis as well as by Government of Pakistan. These military operations also led to sectarian conflict which resulted in the killings of Shias, killing of government officials by nationalists and religious parties. As according to the data by South Asia terrorism organization the highest number of deaths took place in province were due to nationalists’ attacks and then in sectarian attacks and state operation which were 488 and 285 respectively.Taliban hide outs in the province are another cause for sectarian violence which ultimately leads to the need of military operation. Recently killing of Hazara Shias, which is still going on ultimately led to the need of military operation. But this is a fact that Army is not for ‘peace’ whereas Army is meant to maintain peace by fight but you can maintain peace in your own country by killing people, otherwise this will lead to the situation of East Pakistan in 1971.

False Reservations:

Nationalism in Province:

“Rule the Punjabis, intimidate the Sindhis, buy the Pashtun and honor the Baloch”

This is the principle being followed by some of the nationalists of Baluchistan who demand for a separate country named ‘Greater Baluchistan’.  Although in the province the nationalist parties and organizations are quite strong but they completely oblige the law of Pakistan and completely respect the writ of the state.  There are only few nationalists’ leaders like Brahamdagh Bugti and khair Bakhsh Marri who just to gain their personal goals, exploit the people of Baluchistan and with the help of hostile countries try to harm Pakistan. Although there demand is not even the voice of their own tribes, as Changez Marri son of khair Bakhsh Marri is the MPA in Baluchistan Assembly and currently Contender for the chief minister of Baluchistan. Other prominent leaders Talal Bugti and Shah Zain Bugti of Bugti tribe are Pakistani politicians and fully participate in the state’s matters. There is another reason that the demand for a separate country is not justified that the nationalist leaders demand for People republic of Baluchistan but their geographic location does not allow them to do so. It will be practically impossible to run a country surrounded by Islamic republic of Pakistan, Islamic Republic of Iran and Islamic republic of Afghanistan. Moreover 60% of the population is not Baluchi, only 40% of the population is Baluchi speaking and even among that it is just a very small number which demands for a separate country.

Tribal System in Baluchistan:

Another reason for the grievances of people of Baluchistan lies within the province for last many centuries which is the tribal system or ‘Sardar’ system. Leaders of big tribes like Bugti, Hooth, Lashari, Malkani, Qaisrani, Rais and Marri have been exploiting the people of Baluchistan since before the creation of Pakistan. Leaders of those tribes themselves are well educated but they always discourage any new development in the field of health, education and infrastructure because they think it will lessen their rule on deprived people of Baluchistan

Industrial Development in the province:

Another unjustified reservation of the people of the province is the industrial development in the area which particularly includes Gwadar port, Gwadar-Khuzdar Highway and Kachhi Canal. Government of Pakistan is spending PRs. 52.92 Billion only on Gwadar related projects just to address the grievances of the people of Baluchistan. The main reason of the reservation on these projects is concern about their social, economic and political future in Baluchistan. People of the province think that with this foreign involvement development will be on the cost of culture, traditions and heritage of the province.

The issues and grievances of people of Baluchistan.

Much research has been done on the crises of people of Baluchistan but this paper focuses on few themes such as political, economic and social reservations including independent Baloch Sardars causing resistance to the state interference, ethnic culture, resource exploitation, Industrial development in the province and development lag, religious extremism in Baluchistan. Although the literature presents the historical background but the focus is on current deprivations of people of Baluchistan.

During 2005 the attacks in Baluchistan on natural gas pipeline and including various attacks on army chief Pervaiz Mushraf during the visits was the start of gloomy time in province and it is more than “law and order” situation because of the response of the central government to the growing violence—which has included the introduction of 36,000 government forces and the alleged use of attack aircraft 88 in result of growing violence.

Root of the problem underlies in the tribal and Sardar system a “Baloch Sardars have resisted state interference” mainly due to their projected interests in wealth and influence. This gave birth to provincial autonomy and “self-administration”demands. However on the other hand the resource exploitation is the setting of sun. The unavailability of natural gas and “the gas industry’s wellpaid managers and technicians were almost invariably drawn from outside Balochistan” factor has hurt Baluchis much to demand “self admnistration”.  The complaints of Balochi people about health, education “lowest ranking in the Gender Parity Index (GPI)”, transport are genuine and very few development projects are rooted according to “National Economic Survey (NES)”.

The Social Policy Development Centre 2005 report discovered that the percentage of the population living in a high degree of deprivation stands highest in Baluchistan as compared to the other provinces [88 percent in Baluchistan, 51 percent in the NWFP, 49 percent in Sindh and 25 percent in Punjab]. According to povertyrelated reports, the percentage of the population living below the poverty line stands at 63 percent in Baluchistan. This again, is the highest among all other provinces [26 percent in Punjab, 29 percent in the NWFP and 38 percent in Sindh].

Dr. Waheed Baloch said while giving his view about the current situation in Baluchistan, that the province (Baluchistan) has been deprived of the basic development needs for more than 60 years.

Sardar system which originated in 15th century during the reign of Mir Chakar Khan made its roots strong and the people of Baluchistan are crushed between state and sardar. Furthermore the lack of education, sense of deprivation and poverty has caused the people of the province turned into religious extremists causing civil war including external enemies.

Balochi people view the picture in another way they blame the central government exploit the natural resources as mentioned above and negligence of Baluch populace but on the other hand central government claims that Baluchis are led by the nose by some tribal Sardars.

To analyzes the ethnic dimension of the conflict in order to know how and why Balochi local people have been mobilized to take up arms against central government. Some nationalists complain that Baluchistan has its unique identity and when they are not given proper representation the people from different ethnic groups feel ignored on national levels and they resist new ideas and developments in the province.

Various factors which have increased the strategic significance of Baluchistan—the Global War on Terror, the deep-sea port in Gwadar, and the regional dynamics of Southwest Asia—in order to highlight how these events have led to a change in policy and of existing tensions.

One of the objectives for such interference is to destabilize Baluchistan by stimulating insurgency and creating violations for its detachment from Pakistan.

 The social problems of this province stem from the warlord dominated society that does not let any solutions to be implemented. The political problems of this province are because of its due share of attention whether it is a dictatorship or a democracy as the people of the province are never welcomed in the main stream politics. Solving the economic issues of this province is by far the easiest bit; as all we need to do is give the common  man a share of the this resource rich province. However some of the claims are not valid on part of people of Baluchistan such as the tribal system of Baluchistan itself does not allow people to be politically, socially and economically sovereign and be prosperous. Also the ethnic and religious groups do not let people to free themselves from this trap.

A Ray of Hope

The solution to the problem of Baluchistan lies within itself, as the problems of the province are quite clear unlike the problems like extremism and terrorism. The first and foremast step towards a stable Baluchistan is to minimize the role of intelligence agencies, Frontier Core and Army in the province. Government of Pakistan and Army should be very careful in the matter of Baluchistan, God forbid this situation might end up as it happened in the case of East Pakistan. Although the initiative of NFC award was a better stop towards addressing the grievances of the province but equal allocation of resources must be done on technical basis. These can also be solved by introducing high literacy rate among the people which would integrate the various tribes hence allowing them to take collective action another most important step which should be taken by the Government of Pakistan is to continue dialogues with all the separatist leaders and should let all the Baluchis enter in the main stream politics. Baluchistan has always been the back bone in the development of Pakistan and it will always be a precious asset for the country.


This blog is written by the joint collaboration of Osama Sameer, Shaarif Sameer, Nouman Azmat

Pakistani Drama Industry

Dramas in Pakistan

Drama is probably the most popular genre in Pakistan. Dramas provide people with entertainment and information. Women of all background are the segment of the population most prone to drams both in rural and urban centers of Pakistan. Pakistani drama is usually based on socio romantic ideas which are conforming to popular beliefs of the conservative population. A very few efforts have been made to utilize this medium to better the life of audience


PTV is the forerunner of Pakistani drama. Ptv provided audience with a wide range topics in drams. First dramas were telecasted .Ptv  also stated a trend for the forty minute dramas consisting of 12 to 16 episodes .Later dramas of consist of single episode of longer time duration were introduced. Comedy sitcoms also gained popularity.


Our media is currently propagating borrowed culture.PTV as institution promotes national identity, culture and local tradition. Culture and traditional values and belief have taken a back seat in contemporary drama. False values which are contradicting to our ethics are incorporated through media. Foreign language and dresses have replaced the traditional values .this is an alarming sign for our society.

Privatization of drama industry

In Musharraf’s era many private channels started broadcasting entertainment channels. These TV channels concentrated particularly on drama. The golden era of PTV was now over. ARY, GEO and later HUM ended the monopoly of PTV. These channels started producing dramas with new zeal. These newly established TV channels give due importance to audience demand of change and diversity in media content. Profit motivation and competition lead to economical rating race between these channels.


Private media owners are only motivated by the profits gained through advertising. Private media channels have also given more importance to economic aspect of drama industry rather than improving the overall standard of Pakistani drama. Ideas and concepts of successful drams are imitated .This trend has reduced the creative process for writers, actors and directors.

Role of Actors, Writers and Diretcors

Writers are only concentrating on the socio romantic aspects of the society. Usaually interns are employed to write the dramas. Famous writer such as Umera ahmed and Raziaa butt’s dramas conformed to the traditional values.

The veteran actors are trained in the PTV. New actors are given with more opportunity to act and brighter economical aspects. The culture of rehearsals has been replaced by the tightly scheduled routine.

Clichés and Lack of creative process


Pakistani dramas only show feudalistic and business elite with negative connotation .The most important or rather the only theme of Pakistani dramas is Love. It looks like that people in our society have nothing else to do in their lives except to be either in love. Individualistic success stories which are prevalent n Hollywood and Bollywood are rare in Pakistani drama industry. Hackneyed ideas and clichéd stories have made our dramas boring.

Invasion of Turkish dramas

Pakistani contemporary drama is also facing a challenge of foreign dramas. This so called “cultural invasion” of Turkish and Indian drama has struck our industry with surprise. It started when a new channel named Urdu 1 started telecasting a Turkish drama to utilize the prime time drama space. Fortunately or unfortunately at that time our industry has just recently defeated the Indian dramas infusion through cable TV system. It was time when our drama industry was producing nothing new worth watching. Audiences need change and diversity in TV and Turkish dramas provided them both.

The second aspect was economical success of these dramas. Seeing the popularity of Turkish dramas in Pakistan so all the major media channels followed this trend. Soon all the media industry was swept by the Turkish dramas. Media channels purchased the popular dramas telecasted in Turkey and broadcast them in Pakistan after dubbing. This process gives media channels the opportunity to avoid the risk of making the drama which may or may not prove to be successful in future to come.

A strong resistance is offered by the acting community to the foreign content. Actors are now less in demand because of the foreign content being given the prime time slot on television. Actors accuse media channels that for their profits they are destroying local media industry.

Conservative faction of the population is also opposing the “uncensored and unchecked foreign content” of being opposed to the cultural norms of our society. Turkish dramas are criticized for infiltrating the attitude and beliefs which do not conform to social, cultural, traditional and Islamic values of our country.

Education System In Pakistan

                                                                   Education in Pakistan

Article 25-A of Constitution of Pakistan obligates the state to provide free and compulsory quality education to children of the age group 5 to 16 years. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such a manner as may be determined by law”. According to Federal Ministry of Education and Provincial Education Ministries education rate of Pakistan is 57 %.there are different type institutions catering different students from diverse social , ethnic ,and economic background.

English Medium; Elitist Schools

Pakistan got its independence from England in 1947. Briton colonized whole South Asia for nearly two centuries including the area comprising f Pakistan’s current geographical position.

English medium schools have a strict English speaking code. They follow the international general certificate of education (or GCE), where SSC and HSC are replaced by Ordinary Level (or O level) and Advanced level (or A Level) respectively.

The recruits for these schools usually belong to the elitist families of Pakistan. Chains of English medium schools have been established.

·         Roots

·         Beacon house

·         Missionary schools

·         Aitcheson

·         Lawrence

Urdu Medium; Middle Class Schools

Urdu is the national language of Pakistan. A great number of masses study in this language. Urdu medium schools are spread all over the Pakistan.

Many public and private schools employ Urdu language as medium of instruction .These schools adopt national education system with pre assigned curriculum assigned by Ministry of Education and Training Pakistan.

Urdu medium schools have usually an outdated syllabus which does not fulfill the current needs of students. Government schools have usually poor infrastructure and untrained faculty. Despite all odds these schools have still produced notable alumni e.g., noble laureate Dr Abdus Salam.

A commemorative stamp to honour the services o...

A commemorative stamp to honour the services of Dr. Abdus Salam. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Mudrassa Schools

MUdrassa schools are the oldest education system of Pakistan. Students belonging to lower income class usually enroll here. Mudrassa education system only provides students with theological knowledge. Mudrassa’s are also being criticized for their radical teachings .MUdrassa’s in Pakistan are diverse in their teachings. Different schools of thought have their own examination boards corresponding to their schools of thought are:

·         Tanzim-ul-Madaras (Barelvi School of Thought),

·         Wafaq-ul-Madaras (Deoband School of Thought),

·         Wafaq-ul-Madaras (Shitties School of Thought),

·         Wafaq-ul-Madaras (Ahl e Hadith School of Thought) .

Military Schools

These schools have a large number of students currently studying the offered programs. These schools have traditional conservative pedagogical techniques. Medium of education is usually English but the offered programs are aligned with national education system i.e., SSC and HESC .These schools attract a large number of middle class students with military background.

·         Army Public School & College System

·         Fauji Foundation Model Schools

·         Military Colleges & Cadet Colleges

·         National University of Science and Technology

Pakistan’s education system consists of different medium of instruction. People from diverse social ladders are enrolled in different spectrum of education system. A constant struggle is going on with Urdu and medium to gain the role of the only language medium of instruction. Our education system is a tool to maintain the social hierarchy.

In order to become a successful nation we have to synchronize our educational institutions. Either English or Urdu must be selected as medium of instruction for the whole nation. A centralized system of education will provide the people with equal opportunities.