The Class Groupings

The English poet John Donne aptly writes in a famous poem “Meditation XVII,

No man is an island entire of itself; every man 
is a piece of the continent, a part of the main;

We all have been involved in some sort of grouping in our classes.I would like to say that the grouping is pretty simple i have classified them into some sort common groups that exist in school college and universities.

B & G Group

(2,3)(3,2)(1,2)(2,1)(4,2)(2,4)(4,3)(3,4)(5,2)(5,3)(3,5)(2,5)………. and so on .The most prevalent and accepted sort of co-gendered grouping .Usually the boys and girls have also their respective all boys and all girls group too .

 All Boys Club

In All Boys School/College this is the only group that exists. But in Co-ed this is usually the mischievous , blunt and awkward in front opposite sex srt of group .

Girls Power

In All Girls School/College this is the only group that exists.But in Co-ed this is usually dominant group in female majority college.

College Sweethearts

These love birds are found in every class. The live ,eat ,study and even sleep together sometimes.

Religious Fanatics

” The World is Doomed and only We Can Save You .” That is the popular slogan for the people who are looking for the converts and believe this to be sacred duty to save their fellow students from the eternal fire

Player’s

Always looking for a pray just like another predator .They can be further classified into successful ones who have class , style and looks  and the other desperate ones who always seem desperate.

Yeah I am pretty and I know it

There are always a few hotties who are really pretty and treat themselves as the self proclaimed queen and princess

Geek Club

The most popular species for teacher and parents .They are found from pre-school to universities throughout the world .

Big Brother Syndrome

There is always a boy who is more happy to help others then to help himself . They are to be differentiated from Alpha males as they do not try to dominate but to help the group. Sometimes the boys are unable to adjust in the boys club due to their pacifist nature join a girls group to feel safe and protected

Matriarch

Usually brave , outspoken and adventurous girl takes the lead of her group . But the most interesting thing happens when you see a single girl amongst all boys group.She is matriarch /gf/lady/guardian of the group.

Feel free to share your own grouping ….

Thesis Proposal on “Electronic Media and Minorities”

Introduction

Pakistan is a predominantly Muslim majority country where 96.4 percent people affiliated themselves with Islam as their religion. (theguardian, 2011). The religious minoritities consist of Christians, Sikhs, Ahamdis , Hindus which make less than 5 percent of the total population of Pakistan according to the state owned Population Census  Organization. (www.census.gov.pk)    The  state has define Non-Muslim as  “non Muslim means a person who is not a Muslim an d includes a person belonging to Christian  , Hindu , Sikh, Budhist or Parsi community , a person of Quadiani group or Lahori group(who call themselves Ahmadis or by any other name ) , or a Bahai , and a person belonging to any of the scheduled castes .”  (The Constitution of Islamic republic of  Paksitan)

Minorities in Pakistan are the growing victim of radicalization and talibanization in the country. In recent years an increase in the frequency of violence related crimes perpetuated against minorities has been observed. Pakistan institute of peace study has reported a 53 percent increase in the crimes against minorities in year 2012 as compared to 2011. (PIPS, 2013)

This alarming trend has sent the shock waves of terror throughout the nation and the entire world. Most of the atrocities are committed by the extremist groups e,g Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat (ASWJ), Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (Pakistani Taliban), Sipah-e-Mohamadi Pakistan (SMP), Jundullah, Sunni Tehrik (ST), Tehrik-e-Jafria Pakistan (TJP). (Yusuf, 2012).Most of these organizations are banned by the Pakistan government due to their alleged involvement in sectarian killings by the hand of their militant wings. The Mudrassa education culture is also one of the causes of growing   religious intolerance. (Chandran, 2003)The most tragedy struck areas include cities/regions of Karachi, Quetta, Gilgit and Kurram Agency where multiple problems are faced by the minorities. (Group, 23 January 2014)

Electronic media in Pakistan has progressed rapidly during the last decade. A number of new news channels have been started which is an indicator of a relatively free press as compared to the era of military rule where freedom of expression was a rare commodity.

Electronic media in Pakistan has given coverage to minority related issues and problems. A number of incidents were highlighted and given primetime coverage which has generated positive response from both government and civil society to get rid of this social evil. Most of the coverage is just about narrating the issue in news and discussions but practical solutions are rarely offered.


– Context of the problem

Evolution of media during the last few years has played a constructive role in the lives of common people of Pakistan. Minorities in Pakistan are under a constant threat of persecution on religious grounds which is an alarming trend. Our research will focus on the role of electronic media in portraying the stereotypes about minorities and what kind of impact is it creating for the populace of religious minorities Pakistan.


– Background

Pakistan is a country with a Muslim majority population. There is also a considerable number of non Muslims currently residing in Pakistan. The founding father of the nation, Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah’s opening speech to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on 11 August, 1947 clearly indicates that the state will provide religious freedom to all the people living in Pakistan. Following is a quote from Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah’s inaugural speech to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on 11 August, 1947. “You are free; you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other place of worship in this State of Pakistan.” (Jinnah, 1947)

Ahamdis were declared as non Muslim after the constitutional amendment in 1974.The era of General Zia ul Haq is known for radicalization of state and society. Militant wings of sectarian organizations have caused havoc among the minority groups of Pakistan in recent years

Media has played an imperative role in developing constructive attitude in the psyche of the nation. Media has created awareness on the political and social issues by the use of both traditional and electronic resources. Media has been particularly successful in promoting awareness of political issues which is evident by the coverage news channels. The question here is how much and what type of coverage is given to minorities in electronic media.


– Definition of terms

According to the merriam-webster a group of people who are different from the larger group in a country, area, etc., in some way (such as race or religion) can be called as minority. (merriam-webster) .Pakistan is a country with diverse population consisting of multiple ethnic, lingual and religious minorities. In this research paper this term will be use for religious minority groups only.

Electronic media is a term that is usually used in contrast with print media. It is used for broadcast or record medium that use electronic equipment and require electronic encoding for their propagation.

– Literature Review/Research Survey

Condition of minorities in Pakistan   and representation of minorities in Pakistani media

The research done by Jinnah Institute indicates that minorities recognize themselves as Pakistani national, but even then they are persecuted on the basis of their religious identity. (Faruqi, 2011)

Munir 2002 has indicated that the religious extremism as the consequence of ‘unholy’ alliance between fundamentalism and military in past has given an opportunity to religious extremist groups to manipulated the media in order to serve their own interests. (Munir, 2002)

Ansari, M. (2006).has reported that life of Ahamadis in Pakistan is in a situation of constant peril. Persecution on the basis of faith has caused havoc for the religious minorities in Pakistan. (Ansari, 2006)

The trend of breaking the story first and to get the highest ranking amongst news channel have compromised the journalistic ethics, non partisanship and objective reporting .This has negative impact on the lives of minorities. The author believes that if the current trend in media goes uncheck likes this, it would create an atmosphere of religious intolerance. (International Media Support, July 2009)

Syed in 2006 examines in his research of two leading Urdu-language newspapers between February and July 2006 found out that there is overwhelming emphasis on Pakistan’s Islamic identity, which undermines other forms of identity including religious facet of minorities. (Syed, 2008)

In a study done by Shazad Ali about the portrayal of minorities in Pakistani newspaper the author suggested that there is a positive coverage of minorities with the exception of Ahamdi community. The maximum number of issues were highlighted about Christian community in the elite English newspapers of Pakistan. (Ali, 2010)

In another research done by the Qandeela Ambreen corroborates that the coverage of minorities in newspapers of Pakistan e.g. daily dawn, The News and nation is mostly positive. (QandeelaAmbreen, January 2014)

Bila Khaled conducted a study on “Minorities’ Stereotypes in Pakistani Films” which was presented in Official Conference Proceedings The European Conference on Film & Documentary 2014.The study found out that the negative stereotypes about minorities are reinforced through Pakistani films and is one of the major causes of embarrassment for the minorities in Pakistan. (Fatah, 2014)

Representation of minorities in international media

 

The analysis of international media will show that how minorities are depicted by international media. How much and what type of coverage whether positive or negative is given to the issues of minorities.

The research argues that the stereotypes and intolerant opinions are formulated and reinforced through the mainstream media in Denmark and Muslim minority in particular is a victim to it. (Hussain, October 2000)

Minority ownership of media is a rare phenomenon even in America. The research done by Turner, S. Derek and Mark Cooper corroborate that minorities comprise 33 percent of the entire U.S. population, but own a total of only 44 stations, or 3.26 percent of all stations. (Cooper, 2006)

Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies focuses on the role of the media in multicultural and diverse ethnic landscape of Europe. It investigated the significance of a range of media through an analysis of a diversity of cultures and cultural practices. (Georgiou, 2005)

Whiteb suggests that mass media organizations needs more hiring from minorities in order to give their due share of positive coverage. The study also suggests us that there is a small change in the representation of minorities as compared to the increase in their population. (Whiteb, 2009)

Gerbner found out that African American population was somewhat given representation on primetime television but other minorities in Unites States were either rare or absent from television. (Gerbner, 1970)

Georgia (2000) described in her research “Mapping Minorities and their Media: The National Context UK

Report” that the British mainstream media is mainly sensitive to issues of racism and minority exclusion, it is probably the reason why Briton is are more tolerant towards minority groups as compared to other Eurocentric countries. (Georgiou M. , 2000)

Opportunities for further research

  • This research can provide a platform for further studies about portrayal of religious minorities in digital media.
  • It can be helpful to follow a line of investigation about media’s relationship with its audiences.
  • It can be helpful for the researchers of political science and humanitarian research projects to eradicate the social evil of persecution of minorities and can also be useful to create practical solutions for this phenomenon.
  • This thesis can also be helpful to enhance the scope of current research to evaluate the conditions of minorities in Pakistan done by NGOs and humanitarian organizations
  • Government can build up further research on policy and decision making related to minorities and their portrayal on media


– Hypothesis/Research Question

H1                                The coverage of minority related issues in electronic media is directly proportional to the number of incidents related to religious minority groups in Pakistan.

Null Hypothesis          The coverage of minority related issues in electronic media is inversely proportional to the number of incidents related to religious minority groups in Pakistan

H2                                Electronic media is giving positive coverage to minority issues.

Null hypothesis           Electronic media is giving negative coverage to minority issues
– Methodology

“Research methodology is a systematic way to solve a problem. It is a science of studying how research is to be carried out. Essentially, the procedures by which researchers go about their work of describing, explaining and predicting phenomena are called research methodology.” (S. Rajasekar, 2006.)

 

SELECTION CRITERIA:

The selection of news programs, news coverage and analysis of minority related issues on digital media of Pakistan will be on the basis of portrayal of minorities that deals with religious persecution or hatred towards a certain religious community.

 

UNIT OF ANALYSIS

  • News
  • Current Affair Programs
  • News Packages
  • News Websites

 

SAMPLING

Programs will be only selected form Pakistani digital media

 

CODING

Coding will be categorizes as positive, neutral and negative labeled as‘+’, ‘0‘, ‘-’ respectively.

Reference

Ali, S. (2010). Portrayal of Minorities in Elite English Press of Pakistan:. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences (PJSS) , 141-156.

Ansari, M. (2006, December). Minorities in Pakistan. Retrieved November 28, 2014, from http://www.thepersecution.org/di/newline_p.pdf.

Chandran, S. (2003). Sectarian Violence in Pakistan. Retrieved 11 29, 2014, from IPCS ISSUE BRIEF: http://www.ipcs.org/pdf_file/issue/1614934887IB09-SubaChandran-SectarianViolencePak.pdf

Cooper, T. S. (2006). Out of the Picture ; Minority & Female TV Station Ownership in the United States . Washington: Free Press.

Faruqi, M. (2011). Jinnah Institute Research Report, A report on the status of religious minorities. Retrieved 11 29, 2014, from http://www.jinnah-institute.org/: http://jinnah-institute.org/programs/open-democracy-initiative/ji-fos/306-a-question-of-faith-a-report-onthe-status-of-religious-minorities-in-pakistan

Fatah, B. K. (2014). Minorities’ Stereotypes in Pakistani Films. The European Conference on Film & Documentary 2014, (pp. 11-26). Brighton, United Kingdom.

Georgiou, M. (2000). Mapping minorities and their Media: The National Context – The UK. Retrieved 11 29, 2014, from lse.ac.uk: www2.lse.ac.uk/media@lse/research/EMTEL/Minorities/…/ukreport.pdf

Georgiou, R. S. (2005). Editorial Introduction: Media and Minorities in Multicultural Europe. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies , 433-441.

Gerbner, G. (1970). Cultural Indicators: The Case of Violence in Television Drama. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science , 69-81.

Group, I. C. (23 January 2014). Policing Urban Violence In Pakistan. International Crisis Group ;Asia Report N°255 , 4.

Hussain, M. (October 2000). Islam, Media and Minorities in Denmark. Current Sociology , 95-116.

International Media Support. (July 2009). Between radicalisation and democratisation in an unfolding conflict:Media in Pakistan. Denmark: International Media Support.

Jinnah, M. A. (1947, August 11). ADDRESS OF THE FOUNDER OF PAKISTAN QUAID-E-AZAM MUHAMMAD ALI JINNAH ON 11TH AUGUST, 1947 TO 1ST CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY. Retrieved 11 29, 2014, from http://www.na.gov.pk/: http://www.na.gov.pk/en/content.php?id=74

merriam-webster. (n.d.).

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.).

Munir, I. (2002). The Consequences of Fundamentalism on Pakstani Media. SimonFraserUniversity.

Paksitan, T. C. (n.d.). http://www.na.gov.pk/uploads/documents/1333523681_951.pdf.

PIPS. (2013). Sectarian Violence. Pakistan Institute for Peace Studies .

POPULATION BY RELIGION. (n.d.). Retrieved 11 29, 2014, from Population Census Organization: http://web.archive.org/web/20140402081116/http:/www.census.gov.pk/Religion.htm

QandeelaAmbreen. (January 2014). Representation of Religious Minorities in Pakistani Print Media: a study of Daily Dawn, the News and the Nation. American International Journal of Contemporary Research .

  1. Rajasekar, P. P. (2006.). RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. Retrieved 11 29, 2014, from http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0601009v2

Syed, J. (2008). The representation of cultural diversity in Urdu-language newspapers in Pakistan: A study of Jang and Nawaiwaqt. South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies , 31 (2), 317-347.

theguardian. (2011, 1 11). http://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2011/jan/28/muslim-population-country-projection-2030. Retrieved 11 23, 2014, from http://www.theguardian.com: http://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2011/jan/28/muslim-population-country-projection-2030

Whiteb, D. Z. ( 2009). Women and minorities on network television news: An examination of correspondents and newsmakers. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media , 215-223.

http://www.census.gov.pk. (n.d.). POPULATION BY RELIGION. Retrieved 11 29, 2014, from http://www.census.gov.pk: http://web.archive.org/web/20140402081116/http:/www.census.gov.pk/Religion.htm

Yusuf, H. (2012, July). Sectarian violence:Pakistan’s greatest security threat? Retrieved 11 29, 2014, from NOREF Report: http://www.peacebuilding.no/Regions/Asia/Pakistan/Publications/Sectarian-violence-Pakistan-s-greatest-security-threat/(language)/eng-US

The Tradition of storytelling in Urdu (Dastan Goi)

Arghan Div Brings the Chest of Armour to Hamza...

Arghan Div Brings the Chest of Armour to Hamza, from Volume 7 of the Hamzanama, supervised by Samad. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

A folio from the Hamzanama

A folio from the Hamzanama (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Dastan Goi

The Old Persian legend of Dastan e Amir Hamza is the epic tale of good and evil.Amir Hamza tells the story of a Persian noble man who happens to in love with the daughter of the Persian king. King is under a lot of bad influence and tries to kill Amir Hamza through treachery but he escapes. Later through the help of his friends Amir Hamza is able to win the whole country.

The legend of Dastan e Amir Hamza is under the influence of both Persian and Islamic culture.

Mughal emperor Akbar ordered the pictorial elaboration of Dasatan.it took fourteen years to complete this project. It included fourteen hundred Mughal miniatures apart from text to complete this project.

Tilism e hoshruba

Till eighteenth century it became a popular folklore of Urdu in Lukhnow India. Muhammad Hussein Jah and Ahmed Hussain Qamar wrote an Urdu classic based on the exploits of Umroo Ayyar and named as Tilism e Hoshruba.it consisted of vast epic spread over 46 volumes, 42,000 pages and comprising at least 25 million words.

Armies of amir hamza are now at a dead end of world known to man. The evil mister of former emperor Nosherwan has taken refuge under the arms of a very power patron Afrasyab. Tilisme e Hoshruba is a whole realm of supernatural world. It is ruled by the emperor Afrasyyab who is himself great sorcerer and through his magical powers control the squadron of wizards and human armies. Amir Hamza sent his army under the command his one of the grandson the noble prince Asad to recover the fugitives.

This large-scale painting depicts the Battle o...

This large-scale painting depicts the Battle of Mazandaran. It is number 38 in the 7th volume of the Hamzanama, as inscribed between the legs of the man in the bottom center. It depicts a battle scene in which the protagonists Khwajah ‘Umar and Hamzah and their armies engage in fierce battle. Originally, the faces were depicted; these were subsequently erased by iconoclasts, and repainted in more recent times. text on verso (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Umroo Ayyar and his four pupils fight alongside the princely army to defeat the Afraaysab .They also have the help from the newly converted and dissatisfied faction of Tilism e Hosruba.  

Ayyars

Demons, ghosts and jinee and a whole lot of sorcery are involved in this epic battle. To fight the supernatural come the special breed of warriors known as Ayyars. Ayyars are different from chivalrous, virtuous and honarable protagonist of medieval era .Umroo Ayyar is the best of lot. He is a highly intelligent trickster and spy. Umroo Ayyar makes a balance for the supernatural realm with his cunning and charms to always manipulate the situation in his favor in this epic saga of good vs. evil. Umroo has got many tricks, he has a voice of an angel, his ability to take role of any person and most importantly his Zanbeel, a small bag where he can gather all the treasures of the world make him uniquely qualify to be the right hand of Amir Hamza The relationship between Umroo and Amir Hamza get strained when Umroo ayyar try to start a successful rebellion against his former lord Amir Hamza. But after some time Umroo realizes his mistake and patch things up with his benefactor. Amir Hamza is kind of a patron to him.

Contemporary Dastan Goi

Contemporary dastan goi in Pakistan is focused on children story books. Mazhar kaleem M.Aand Zaheer Ahemed have written of vast collection of Umrroo Ayyar novels. These novels only present glimpse of the original version but they were still able to preserve the legend in the minds of younger generation. These novels are published under the banner of Yousaf brothers

In 1970 Ferozsons published abridged and simplified version two series of original Dastan e Amir Hamza and Tilism e Hoshruba.

Musarraf ali Farooqi has translated the original version of Tilism e Hoshruba into English in 2007.

 

 

 

 

Education System In Pakistan

                                                                   Education in Pakistan

Article 25-A of Constitution of Pakistan obligates the state to provide free and compulsory quality education to children of the age group 5 to 16 years. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such a manner as may be determined by law”. According to Federal Ministry of Education and Provincial Education Ministries education rate of Pakistan is 57 %.there are different type institutions catering different students from diverse social , ethnic ,and economic background.

English Medium; Elitist Schools

Pakistan got its independence from England in 1947. Briton colonized whole South Asia for nearly two centuries including the area comprising f Pakistan’s current geographical position.

English medium schools have a strict English speaking code. They follow the international general certificate of education (or GCE), where SSC and HSC are replaced by Ordinary Level (or O level) and Advanced level (or A Level) respectively.

The recruits for these schools usually belong to the elitist families of Pakistan. Chains of English medium schools have been established.

·         Roots

·         Beacon house

·         Missionary schools

·         Aitcheson

·         Lawrence

Urdu Medium; Middle Class Schools

Urdu is the national language of Pakistan. A great number of masses study in this language. Urdu medium schools are spread all over the Pakistan.

Many public and private schools employ Urdu language as medium of instruction .These schools adopt national education system with pre assigned curriculum assigned by Ministry of Education and Training Pakistan.

Urdu medium schools have usually an outdated syllabus which does not fulfill the current needs of students. Government schools have usually poor infrastructure and untrained faculty. Despite all odds these schools have still produced notable alumni e.g., noble laureate Dr Abdus Salam.

A commemorative stamp to honour the services o...

A commemorative stamp to honour the services of Dr. Abdus Salam. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Mudrassa Schools

MUdrassa schools are the oldest education system of Pakistan. Students belonging to lower income class usually enroll here. Mudrassa education system only provides students with theological knowledge. Mudrassa’s are also being criticized for their radical teachings .MUdrassa’s in Pakistan are diverse in their teachings. Different schools of thought have their own examination boards corresponding to their schools of thought are:

·         Tanzim-ul-Madaras (Barelvi School of Thought),

·         Wafaq-ul-Madaras (Deoband School of Thought),

·         Wafaq-ul-Madaras (Shitties School of Thought),

·         Wafaq-ul-Madaras (Ahl e Hadith School of Thought) .

Military Schools

These schools have a large number of students currently studying the offered programs. These schools have traditional conservative pedagogical techniques. Medium of education is usually English but the offered programs are aligned with national education system i.e., SSC and HESC .These schools attract a large number of middle class students with military background.

·         Army Public School & College System

·         Fauji Foundation Model Schools

·         Military Colleges & Cadet Colleges

·         National University of Science and Technology

Pakistan’s education system consists of different medium of instruction. People from diverse social ladders are enrolled in different spectrum of education system. A constant struggle is going on with Urdu and medium to gain the role of the only language medium of instruction. Our education system is a tool to maintain the social hierarchy.

In order to become a successful nation we have to synchronize our educational institutions. Either English or Urdu must be selected as medium of instruction for the whole nation. A centralized system of education will provide the people with equal opportunities.