After the death of the Prophet Muhammad, his followers established a system of electing the new leader chosen by selective electoral of leading companions and the people of the cities of Medina and Mecca. After the besiegement and murder of Uthman the third caliph by the young generation of Muqatila, Ali (R.A) was elected as the next caliph but a civil war broke out in Islamic world by abruptly ending the tradition of this early form of democracy. From the very beginning of the history of Islam few royal families have rules the Easter Realm of Islamic world.
Transition from the Neo Democratic Caliphate to Arab Monarchy
After the untimely demise of Ali bin Abi Talib. Muawyia swiftly captured the Islamic realm by outmaneuvering the heir of Ali. In popular orthodox view it was decided that after Muawyia Hassan the elder son of Ali will be the next caliph. But Hassan died in suspicious circumstances leaving only muawyia to rule. Muawyia appointed his son as the legal successor of caliphate after him
2nd civil war and establishment of Umayyad rule
Yezid was the only living son of Muawyia , after death of his father he was made the next so called caliph. This was the first time in history when caliphate was bestowed to the son of former caliph. This caused a strong reaction in the masses egalitarian Arabs.Hussain bin Ali the next patriarch of the house of Ali was called by the military city of kufa to lead them in this precarious situation. Hussein was also the grandson of the prophet Mohammed (SAW).but Yedzid’s governor of Iraq foiled the attempt of Alide resistance by killing Hussein and all male members of his family .Another front of resistance was opened by the holy cities of Mecca and Medina lead by Ibn e Zubayr brothers. They were initially successful and captured vast amount area due to absence of power created by Yezid’s death.
Establishment of Omayyad’s rule
Another branch of the Omayyad’s family was come through in these difficult times. It was the house of Merwan. They end the schism by the brutal use of force .Omyyad’s made Damascus the new capital of Islam. Early Omyyad’s were able to established Arab hegemony and supremacy over the entire Islamic world. Umayyad generals were able to conquer central Asia, northern Africa. Iberian peninsula, khurasan and Sind in India.
Omayyad established the dictatorial rule over the both Muslim and non Muslim population in the empire. Omayyad were big land owners and were the early feudal s in the Islamic world. War booty and slaves was another lucrative source of revenue for the empire.
House of Ali was able to gain sympathies of the general public .House of Abbas were able to put a whole system of resistance based on espionage and treachery. They were also able to win the sympathy of newly converted Muslims who were heavily taxed even after their conversion which was against the religious doctrine of Islamic jurisprudence. The third element was the Muslim feudal class of Persia who has newly acquired lands in the recently conquered area of Persian Empire. Abu Muslim commanded an army against the Umayyad governor of Khurasan and put an end to the rule of House of Omayyad