Rise of Muhammad and State of Medina
Background of Political and Economic History of State of Medina
Before the advent of Islam and rise of Muhammad Quraysh were the leading parties of mecca. Quraysh have been split into main parties Hashemite and Umayyad. On the other hand Umayyad who were the political elite and also the confederates of Mukhzumites the most warlike branch of Quraysh. Hashmites branch of Quraysh was on the top of political hierarchy of Quraysh and were also regarded as the spiritual leaders of Quraysh.
After the declaration of his prophet hood Muhammad called the meeting of his immediate kin which did not met with a favorable reaction. He yet again called another assembly of the whole Quarish to follow the new monotheistic religion of Islam .Reaction of Quraysh was hostile and violent. The old age customs of the Quraysh were not that easy to break.
Preaching of Muhammad caused the elimination of Hashmites from the inner circle of Quraysh .Now the most radical steps were taken to reduce the influence of the newly established religion which challenged the pagan customs of Meccan society .Islam has caused disturbance in the political, social and economic structure of the Meccan society. A faction of Quraysh was highly skeptical of old ways and customs of Arabic society and was inclined towards this new religion.
Shaab e abi talib
Quraysh were now sure that the only way to stop the spread of Islam is by locking away is away Muhammad and his kin. They confined the whole immediate kin of Muhammad, the hasmites, into the outskirts of mecca. It is most famously known as Shaab Abi Talib. All the tribes in mecca took a solemn oath to never aid or marry Hasmites in the future to come. This act of hostility of Quraysh against one of their own was unprecedented. But this situation was unacceptable for the liberal and open-minded elements in Qurasih who tried to annul this inhumane treatment of their distant brethren.
Migration to Medina
Muhammad saw this unending hostility in mecca so he started looking for the new allies. The target was to have a place for the propagation of new religion outside of mecca. First he visited Taif a very powerful city home to the Thaqifites tribe into the south of Arabia but this journey didn’t brought back the expected results
Another powerful city in Arabia was Yathrib which was the home to two ever quarrelling tribes of Aus and Khazraj and a great number of Jewish tribes. Jewish tribes settled there after the subjugation of Israel by Roman Empire. City of Yathrib was big exporter of date palms .Unlike the trading community of mecca they relied on the yearly product of the palm dates. On the other hand Jews also produced dates but their main revenue was earned through the interest earned by banking .
Muslim of medina took the first pledge of known as Aqbah in 621A.D during pilgrimage of mecca. Next year in 622 seventy five citizens of medina met with prophet and put their unending allegiance with him. The purpose was to establish a stronghold for the propagation of the new religion.